Table 2

Summary study characteristics
Study/ Location Study design/ Sample size Policy Gender Age/ Follow-up or exposure duration Ethnicity Socioeconomic status Baseline weight status Outcome measure(s)/ Growth reference
Diet policies
Foster, et al. 2008 [55]/ USA Randomised controlled trial/ n = 844, I:n = 479, C: n = 365 School nutrition policy initiative I: 45.0% males, 55.0% females, C: 47.8% males, 52.2% females I: mean ± SD 11.1 ± 1.0 years, C: mean ± SD 11.2 ± 1.0 years/ 2 years I: 44.3% black, 22.4% Hispanic, 17.1% Asian, 10.7% white, 5.5% other, C: 46.8% black, 27.7% Asian, 14.2% white, 5.8% Hispanic, 5.5% other Not described I: 17.2% overweight, 25.34% obese, C: 16.5% overweight, 21.8% obese BMI-SDS, overweight, obese/ CDC 2000
Baxter, et al. 2009 [53]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 1,557 Location of School Breakfast Program consumption Males and females 9–10 year olds/ 4 years 90% black Not described Not provided BMI%
Henry, 2006 [50]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 7,446 National School Lunch Program Males and females 4–10 year olds/ 3 years 66% white, 26% African American, 5% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian 26% eligible for FSM Kindergarten: 4% overweight, 4% obese, 3rd grade: 4% overweight, 6% obese Overweight from BMI/ CDC2000
Hernandez, Francis and Doyle, 2003 [41]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 1,140 National School Lunch Program 50% males, 50% females Mean ± SD 6.2 ± 0.4 years/ 9 years 54% white, 24% Hispanic, 12% black, 10% other 37% household income < $20,000 Mean BMI% ± SD, Kindergarten: 63.3 ± 28.0, 1st grade: 62.1 ± 29.8, 3rd grade: 66.6 ± 28.8, 5th grade: 69.4 ± 28.7 BMI/ CDC 2000
Hinrichs, 2010 [47]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 130,353 National School Lunch Program 47.4% males, 52.6% females Not provided (studied adults who had participated in policy during childhood) 88.0% white, 10.3% black, 1.6% other Not described Males: 42.5% overweight, 8.0% obese, Females: 22.4% overweight, 7.4% obese BMI, overweight, obese
Millimet, Tchernis and Husain, 2008 [43] and 2010 [44]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 13.531 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program 50.7% males, 49.3% females Mean ± SD 9.2 ± 0.4 years/ 3 years 57.9% white, 17.4% Hispanic, 13.8% black, 4.5% Asian Mothers education: 19.8% high school, 28.1% some college, 14.4% bachelor’s degree, 8.4% advanced college degree Kindergarten: 25.8% overweight, 11.4% obese, 3rd grade: 32.5% overweight, 17.1% obese BMI%, BMI growth rate/ CDC 2000
Millimet and Tchernis, 2009 [42]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 7,824 School Breakfast Program 51.3% males, 48.7% females Mean ± SD 9.1 ± 0.3 years/ 5 years 55.4% white, 19.1% Hispanic, 13.7% black Mean socioeconomic status index 0.06 ± 0.77 3rd grade: 36.5% overweight or obese, 5th grade: 41.4% overweight or obese BMI growth rate/ CDC 2000
Ramirez-Lopez, et al. 2005 [54]/ Mexico Cohort study/ n = 360, I: n = 254, C: n = 106 School Breakfast Program Males and females I: mean ± SD 8.6 ± 1.3 years, C: mean ± SD 8.4 ± 1.3 years/ 9 months Not described Not described I: 10.6% overweight, 10.6% obese, C: 8.5% overweight, 11.3% obese BMI, body fat%, overweight, obese/ CDC 2000
Fox, et al. 2009 [56]/ USA Cross-sectional study/ n = 706 Nutrition guidelines 51% males, 49% females Mean 8.8 years/ > 1 year 52% white, 24% Hispanic, 17% black, 7% other 48.49% eligible for FSM Not described BMI-SDS, obese/ CDC 2000
Jones, et al. 2003 [34]/ USA Cross-sectional study/ n = 772 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program 50% males, 50% females 50% aged 5–8 years, 50% aged 9–12 years/ up to 7 years 58.2% Black, 25,8% white, 10.4% Hispanic, 0.1% other Head of household has <12 years education 33.9%, household food insecure 24.0% 34.2% overweight or obese Overweight and obese from BMI%/ CDC 2000
Physical activity policies
Donnelly, et al.2009 [62]/ USA Randomised controlled trial/ n = 1,527, I: n = 814, C: n = 713 Physical activity across the curriculum 48.8% males, 51.2% females 7–9 year olds/ 3 years 77.4% Caucasian, 10.1% Hispanic, 6.2% African American, 3.6% multi-ethnic, 1.6% Native American, 1.2% Asian 43% eligible for FSM Mean BMI ± SD I: 17.9 ± 3.1, C:18.0 ± 3.7 BMI/ CDC 2000
Heelan, et al. 2009 [61]/ USA Controlled before and after study/ n = 324, I: n = 201, C: n = 123 Walking school bus scheme 44.8% males, 55.2% females Mean ± SD I: 8.1 ± 1.7 years, C: 8.4 ± 1.6 years/ 2 years 90% white, 7% Hispanic, 3% other ~30% eligible for FSM Mean BMI% ± SD I:67.6 ± 22.3, C:61.6 ± 29.1 BMI-SDS,% body fat/ CDC 2000
Chiodera, et al.2008 [60]/ Italy Cohort study/ n = 4,500 Professionally led PE 51.1% males, 48.9% females 6–10 year olds/ 8 months Not described Not described Mean BMI ± SD: grade 1 16.3 ± 2.3, grade 2 16.9 ± 2.5, grade 3 17.2 ± 2.6, grade 4 17.9 ± 3.1, grade 5 18.6 ± 3.1 BMI
Datar and Sturm, 2004 [38]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 9,751, I: n = 8,917, C: n = 834 Increased PE duration of 1 hour per week 50% males, 50% females 4–6 year olds/ 1 year I: 61% white, 16% Hispanic, 12% black, 11% other, C: 58% white, 20% black, 15% Hispanic, 8% other I: 13% family income < $15,000, C: 16% family income < $15,000 I: 15% overweight, 11% obese, C: 15% overweight, 12% obese BMI/ CDC 2000
Fernandes, 2010 [39] and Fernandes and Sturm, 2011 [40]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 8,246 Meeting the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines 50.4% males, 49.6% females 6–11 year olds/ 5 years 61.2% white, 18.7% Hispanic, 13.1% black, 7.0% other 11.3% below the poverty threshold Mean BMI% ± CD 60.8 ± 28.3, 13.3% obese BMI%/ CDC 2000
Combined policies
Johnson, et al. 2012 [31]/ Australia Controlled before and after study/ n = 1318 Be Active Eat Well I: 46.3% males, 53.7% females, C: 50.8% males, 49.2% females Baseline mean ± SD – I: 8.16 ± 2.25, C: 8.19 ± 2.15. Follow-up mean ± SD – I: 11.1 ± 2.26 C:10.3 ± 2.14 Parents born overseas [27]* I: 6% C: 12% Mothers didn’t complete high school education I: 47.1% C: 40.6% Baseline mean BMI-SDS ± SD – I: 0.59 ± 0.92, C: 0.60 ± 0.87. Follow-up mean BMI-SDS ± SD – I: 0.54 ± 0.94 C:0.59 ± 0.88 BMI-SDS/ CDC 2000
Jordan, et al. 2008 [64]/ USA Controlled before and after study/ n = 577 Utah’s Gold Medal Schools I: 51% males, 49% females, C:52% males, 48% females Mean ± SD I: 9.0 ± 1.6 years, C: 9.0 ± 1.6 years/ 1 year I: 85.8% white, 7.6% Hispanic, 2.8% Hawaiian, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.0% African American, 2.8% other C: 86.7% white, 7.0% Hispanic, 2.1% African American, 0.7% American Indian, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% Hawaiian, 2.5% other Maternal education: <high school I: 1.7%, C: 4.9%, high school graduate I: 19.9%, C: 25.9%, some college I: 41.9%, C: 41.6%, college graduate I: 32.0%, C: 25.5%, graduate degree I: 4.5%, C: 2.1% Not described BMI-SDS/ CDC 2000
Chomitz, et al. 2010 [63]/ USA Cohort study/ n = 1,858 Healthy living Cambridge kids 51.8% males, 48.2% females Mean ± SD 7.7 ± 1.8 years/ 3 years 37.3% white, 36.9% black, 14.0% Hispanic, 10.2% Asian, 1.7% other 43.3% from low income families Mean BMI-SDS ± SD 0.7 ± 1.1. 16.8% overweight, 20.2% obese BMI-SDS, overweight, obese/ CDC 2000
Harrison, et al. 2011 [57]/ UK Cross-sectional study/ n = 1,724 Variety of diet and physical activity related policies 44.4% males, 55.6% females Mean ± SD 10.3 ± 3.1 years/ 5 years Not described Age parent left full time education: <16 years 46.5%, 16–18 years 33.4%, >18 years 20.1% 16.8% overweight, 5.2% obese Fat mass index (FMI)/ IOTF
Veugelers and Fitzgerald, 2005 [58]/ Canada Cross-sectional study/ 279 schools Nutrition policy and Annapolis valley health promoting schools project Males and females 10–11 year olds/ 5 years Not described Not described 32.8% overweight, 9.9% obese Overweight, obese from BMI-SDS/ IOTF
Zhu, et al. 2010 [59]/ USA Cross-sectional study/ 738 schools Variety of diet and physical activity related policies Males and females Not described/ up to 6 years Not described 53% eligible for FSM Mean ± SD 71.7% ± 12.6 within BMIHFZ BMIHFZ

Williams et al.

Williams et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:101   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-101

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