|Studies investigating the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport for adults|
|Reference||Design*||Method**||Sample (n)||Country||Age (yrs)||Cohort***||Sex****||Aim||Sport||Other PA||Theory||Key Finding(s)||Psychosocial Outcomes||Score (%)|
|||Quant.||Cross.||1427||Belgium||20-65||Adult||B||Analysis of the relationship between sports participation and stress||Favourite sports||no sport, other sports/PA||Mindful Movement theory||Little difference in perceived stress and emotional distress existed in men and women across different sports. Significant associations were found between participation in walking and meditation sports with stress appraisal and emotional distress among women.||Less stress and distress, less emotional distress (males) and increased social support||69|
|||Quant.||Pros. Cross.||6751||Germany||18-45||Adult||B||Analysis of the effects of sport participation in long-term labour market variables, health and subjective well-being||Sport at least monthly||Less than monthly participation in sport||Nil||Positive mental health effects of sports participation included vitality, social functioning and role emotion. Sport has positive effects on health and subjective well-being.||Vitality, social functioning, role emotion, subjective well-being||87|
|||Qual.||Cross.||14||Australia||16-25||Adol. and adult||M||Explore connections between sport and civic engagement||Sport||Nil||Phenomenological framework Grounded theory||Sport participants reported mental and health benefits including feeling good, confident, ability to cope with hard times and a sense of belonging.||Feeling good, confidence, coping with hard times, sense of belonging, resilience||67|
|||Quant.||Cross.||16,627||England||16 yrs and older||Adol. and adult||B||Investigate impact of sports participation on subjective well-being||Sport||No sport and non-social interaction sports||Subjective wellbeing||Sports participation positively associated with subjective well-being.||Well-being/happiness||56|
|||Qual.||Cross.||20||USA||17-23||Adol. and adult||B||Investigate mechanisms for creating sense of community within a sport setting||College athletes||Nil||Sense of community. Grounded theory, Phenomenoligcal approach||Five key factors (leadership opportunities, social spaces, competition, equity in administrative decisions, administrative consideration) were identified that fostered a sense of community within a collegiate sport context. Sense of community went beyond their sporting experience.||Sense of community||71|
|||Quant.||Cross.||818||Australia||M 34-47||Adult||F||Examine health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in different forms of PA||Club sport||Walking and gymnasium||Nil||Women involved in club sport reported higher levels of mental well-being and life satisfaction compared with women engaged in the individual-based activities of walking and going to a gymnasium (ie participation in sport is associated with better mental well-being than other forms of PA). Club sport participants had better physical role functioning, vitality, social functioning and mental health.||Mental health, life satisfaction, vitality, social functioning||81|
|||Quant.||Long.||30||Australia||M 24||Adult||M||Monitor changes in stress and recovery for Rugby League players||Rugby League||nil||Nil||Significant decreases in social stress were reported between weeks 1 and 4.||Less social stress||56|
|||Quant.||Cross.||19,842||UK||M 45||Adult||B||Examine association between mental health and PA behaviours||Leisure Time Sport||Walking, Domestic PA||Nil||All types of PA associated with lower risk of psychological distress, with strongest effect observed for sport.||Less psychological distress||93|
|||Quant.||Cross.||791||USA||M 20||Adult||B||Examined relationships among dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport, individual sport, athlete identity, jock identity)||Team sport||Individual sport and no sport||Nil||Participation in a team sport was associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identify mediated the relationship between team sport participation and depression.||Lower depression score||73|
|||Quant.||Cross.||1919||Belgium||20-65||Adult||B||Examine associations between 5 types of PA with different contents: housework, leisure active transport, biking to/from work, walking to/from work and sports participation and mental health||Sport||Housework, leisure transport, walking and bike to work||Nil||Sports participation was the only type of PA inversely associcated with both stress and distress.||Less stress and distress||75|
|||Quant.||Pros.||118||UK||M 21||Adult||B||Test hypotheses that importance of ratings of life aspirations would mediate the effects of participation in sport on psychological well-being||Competitive sport participation||Recreation sport participation||Self-Determination Theory||Recreational athletes reported higher psychological well-being than competitive athletes. The moral worth of sport does not reside so much in the frequency with which individuals engage in sport but in the goals and values people express through their participation.||Hedonic enjoyment and eudemonia wellbeing||44|
*Quant. (Quantitative): Qual (Qualitative).
**Cross. (Cross-sectional): Pros. (Prospective): Long: (Longitudinal).
****M (Male): F (Female): B (Both Male and Female).
Eime et al.
Eime et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:135 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-135