Table 1

Summary of observational studies with sedentary behaviour outcomes only
Author (Year); Country Sample characteristics (Number, Age, % Male) Outcome variables Home physical and social environment independent variables Adjustments Internal validity External validity
House & yard PA equipment Media equipment BR media equipment Family rules Family support Family behaviour
Sedentary Outcome Only - Cross-Sectional Studies
Cui (2011); China [41] n=986; 6–18 yrs; 53% Screen time (SR,PR) + + 0 + Age, income, sex, residence, clustering + +
Devis-Devis (2009); SpainE[42] n=323; 12–16 yrs; 46% TV time; 0 Not noted + +
e-game time; +
Mobile ph time (SR) (V,R) +
Granich (2011); Aust. [43] n=298; 11–12 yrs; 49% Screen time (SR) (R) 0 + +/- + 0 Not included (NS) except for SES (school day), gender (weekend day); analysed by school/weekend day + +
Hardy (2006); Aust. [44] n=343; 12–13 yrs; 50% TV time (SR) (R) + 0 0 + + Not included (NS) + ++
Hesketh (2007); Aust.A B D[45] n=895; grade 5 & 6; 46% TV Time (PR) (R) + + - + School clustering + +
Hoyos Cillero (2011); Spain [46] n=503; 10–13 yrs; ~50% TV time; +F,0M 0F,0M 0F,-M 0F,+M Child & parent BMI, parent ed.; school clustering; stratified by age, gender; analysed by week/weekend day + +
Screen time (SR) (R) 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,+M
Hume (2010); The Netherlands [47] n=338; 12–15 yrs; 55% TV time (SR) 0 0 0 + School clustering + +
Jago (2008); Europe [48] n=2670; grade 3 & 9; 49% TV time; 0 0 Grade, gender, father & mother income, obesity; school clustering, country (overall); stratified by country + ++
e-game time (SR) 0 0
Norman (2005); USA [49] n=878; 11–15 yrs; 46% Sedentary time (SR) (R) 0F,0M -F, 0M +F,0M Age, ethnicity, BMI, education; stratified by gender + +
Patriarca (2009); Italy [50] n=987; 11–16 yrs; 50% TV Time; 0 0 0 Age, gender, no. of siblings, both parents in household, parent working activity, sport activity + ++
Computer time; + + 0
e-game time (SR) 0 0 -
Ramirez (2011); USA [51] n=160; mean 14.6 yrs; 48% TV time; + - Not noted; analysed by SR/PR + +
e-game time; + -
Computer time (SR,PR) (R) 0 -
Springer (2010); USA [52] n=734; grade 4; 50% TV time (SR) 0 - + Gender, ethnicity, age, language, data collection period, school clustering; analysed by week/weekend day + +
van Sluijs (2010); Europe [53] n=2107; 9–10 & 14–15 yrs; 46 & 56% Sedentary time (Acc) (V) 0 0 0 Grade, sex; stratified by country ++ ++
van Zutphen (2007); Aust. [54] n=1926; 4–12 yrs; 49% TV time (PR) + + - Parent ed., income, SES, no. of adults & children + +
Zabinski (2007); USAC[55] n=878; 11–15 yrs; 48% Sedentary time (SR) - - 0 Not noted + +
Sedentary Outcome Only - Longitudinal Studies
Te Velde (2011); The NetherlandsB[56] n=12654; 11–17 yrs; 54% TV time (SR) (R) + - + Age, sex, school level (SES), ethnicity ++ ++
Willoughby (2008); Canada [57] n=1591; grade 9 & 10; 51% e-game use; 0 Parent ed., baseline value of outcome, gender + +
Internet use (SR) 0

Longitudinal studies include age at baseline; E-games include electronic & computer games; Computer includes computer and internet use; All analysis at highest multivariate level unless otherwise noted; Significance at p<0.05 unless otherwise noted; M (male) & F (female) entered separately where stratified as such; For studies with multiple groups or time specific outcomes at least half of analysis must show an association in the given direction (‘+’ or ‘-‘) with an independent variable; Adjustments listed as stated in paper; SR self report, PR parent report, Acc accelerometer, V validity reported, R reliability reported, NS potential confounders not included in final analysis as found to be non-significant, SES socioeconomic status, BMI body mass index, A bivariate analysis, B mediation analysis, C cluster analysis, D significance p<0.1, E SEM analysis.

Maitland et al.

Maitland et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:99   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-99

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