Table 2

Summary of observational studies with physical activity outcomes only
Author (Year); Country Sample characteristics (Number, Age, % Male) Outcome variables Home physical and social environment independent variables Adjustments Internal validity External validity
House & yard PA equipment Media equipment BR media equipment Family rules Family support Family behaviour
Physical Activity Outcome Only - Cross-Sectional Studies
Aarts (2010); The Netherlands [58] n=4297; 7–9 yrs, 10–12 yrs; M/F Outdoor Play (PR) +F,+M 0F,0M +F,+M 0F,0M Parent ed., school clustering; stratified by age, gender + +
Erwin (2007); USA A B D[59] n=47; 6–13 yrs; 70% PA level (SR) 0 0 None - -
Haerens (2009); Belguim [60] n=62; grade 7 & 8; 19% MVPA time (Acc) (V,R) 0 0 0 Age, SES, gender + +
Kerr (2008); USA [61] n=839; 11–15 yrs; 42% MVPA level (SR) (V) +F,0M 0F,0M Age, ethnicity, parent ed., parent PA; stratified by gender + -
Li (2006); China [62] n=1787; 11–17 yrs; 50% Inactivity (SR) 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,-M Clustering; stratified by gender + ++
Maddison (2009); NZC[63] n=110; 12–17 yrs; 57% MVPA time (Acc); 0 Not noted + -
MVPA time (SR) (V) +
McMinn (2011); England [64] n=2071; 9–10 yrs; 48% PA counts (Acc) 0 0 + Sex, age quartiles, mth of measurement, ethnicity, school clustering ++ ++
Page (2010); UK [65] n=1300; 10–11 yrs; 50% Outdoor play (SR) 0F,0M Daylight, neighbourhood deprivation, pubertal stage, BMI; stratified by gender + +
Ridgers (2010); UK [66] n=110; 9–10 yrs; 41% MVPA time (Acc) (V,R) 0 - School clustering; analysed by week/weekend day time + +
Spinks (2006); Aust. [67] n=518; 5–12 yrs; 54% Inactivity (PR) 0 School clustering, gender, age, maternal ed., school transport, organised activity, family size, TV/computer use + +
Trang (2009); Vietnam [68] n=2660; 11–16 yrs; 50% Inactivity (SR) (V) 0F,-M 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M Clustering; sample weighted; stratified by gender ++ ++
Veitch (2010); Aust. [69] n=187; 8–9 yrs; 53% Outdoor play (PR) (R) 0 0 Not noted; analysed by week/weekend day + +
Wong (2010); Hong Kong [70] n=29,139; mean 14.5/6 yrs; 44% MVPA time (SR) (V,R) +/-F,-M School clustering, age, family affluence, parent ed.; stratified by sex ++ ++
Physical Activity Outcome Only – Longitudinal Studies
Crawford (2010); Aust. [71] n=301; 10–12 yrs; 46% MVPA time (Acc) (V) 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M +F,0M +F,0M 0F,+M School clustering, baseline age, average zBMI; analysed by sex ++ ++
Wilson (2011); USA [72] n=198; grade 6; 47.5% MVPA time (Acc) 0 0 + Baseline MVPA & BMI, free lunch, ethnicity, parent ed., gender, intervention, school clustering ++ ++

Longitudinal studies include age at baseline; MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity; Inactivity defined as insufficient MVPA; All analysis at highest multivariate level unless otherwise noted; Significance at p<0.05 unless otherwise noted; M (male) & F (female) entered separately where stratified as such; For studies with multiple groups or time specific outcomes at least half of analysis must show an association in the given direction (‘+’ or ‘-‘) with an independent variable; Adjustments listed as stated in paper; SR self report, PR parent report, Acc accelerometer, V validity reported, R reliability reported, SES socioeconomic status, BMI body mass index, A bivariate analysis, B significance p<0.01; C SEM analysis; D independent measure home environment summary including both physical activity and media equipment.

Maitland et al.

Maitland et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:99   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-99

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