Table 2

PA effects of included studies stratified by intervention strategies
Studies1
High quality multi-level theory-based High quality Lower quality2
Strategy Significant Non-significant Significant Non-significant Significant Non-significant
Organizational level
Structured PA
Every day (10-30 min) Alhassan [30] Annesi [39]3 Winter & Sass [45]3
Binkley & Specker [31] Sharma [48]3
Eliakim [33]
Trost [36]
2-4 per week (15-45 min) Fitzgibbon [34] Puder [35] Fitzgibbon [34]3 Puder [35]3 Alhassan [38] Bellows [40]
Jones [44] Fitzgibbon [41]3
Fitzgibbon [42]3
Reilly [47]3
Compared to free play Parish [46]3
Brown [49]
Deal [50]
Playground/-time modifications Puder [35] Cardon [32] Hannon & Brown [43] Alhassan [37]
Puder [35]3 Nicaise [51]
Van Cauwenberghe [52]
Interpersonal level
Teacher involvement Fitzgibbon [34] Puder [35] Alhassan [30] Puder [35]3 Alhassan [38] Bellows [40]
Eliakim 2007 [33] Annesi 2013 [39]3 Winter & Sass 2011 [45]3
Fitzgibbon 2011 [34]3 Jones 2011 [44] Reilly 2006 [47]3
Trost 2008 [36] Parish 2007 [46]3 Sharma 2011 [48]3
Parental involvement Fitzgibbon 2011 [34] Puder 2011 [35] Fitzgibbon 2011 [34]3 Puder 2011 [35]3 Bellows 2013 [40]
Fitzgibbon 2005 [41]3
Fitzgibbon 2006 [42]3
Winter & Sass 2011 [45]3
Reilly 2006 [47]3
Sharma 2011 [48]3
Intrapersonal level
Knowledge, beliefs, motor skills, aerobic fitness, self-efficacy Fitzgibbon 2011 [34] Puder 2011 [35] Alhassan 2012 [30] Puder 2011 [35]3 Annesi 2013 [39]3 Fitzgibbon 2005 [41]3
Eliakim 2007 [33] Jones 2011 [44] Fitzgibbon 2006 [42]3
Fitzgibbon 2011 [34]3 Parish 2007 [46]3 Winter & Sass 2011 [45]3
Reilly 2006 [47]3
Sharma 2011 [48]3

Notes: 1Named by first author, 2Moderate and low quality studies, 3Theory-based intervention.

Mehtälä et al.

Mehtälä et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014 11:22   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-22

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