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Exploring patterns of accelerometry-assessed physical activity in elderly people

Sandra Ortlieb12, André Dias234, Lukas Gorzelniak2, Dennis Nowak56, Stefan Karrasch178, Annette Peters9, Klaus A Kuhn2, Alexander Horsch1023, Holger Schulz111* and KORA Study Group

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

2 Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, TUM, Munich, Germany

3 Computer Science Department, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

4 Tromsø Telemedicine Laboratory, Norwegian Center for Integrated Care and Telemedicine, Tromsø, Norway

5 Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany

6 Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research, Munich, Germany

7 Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

8 Institute of General Practice, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany

9 Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

10 Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

11 Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany

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International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014, 11:28  doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-28

Published: 28 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Elderly people obtain significant health benefits from physical activity (PA), but the role of activity patterns has scarcely been researched. The present study aims to describe the patterns of PA among different intensities of activity in elderly people. We assess how patterns differ between more and less active groups (‘rare’, ‘average’, and ‘frequent’), and explore whether and how various PA parameters are associated with functional exercise capacity (FEC).

Methods

PA was measured in 168 subjects (78 males; 65–89 years of age), using a triaxial GT3X accelerometer for ten consecutive days. Subjects were divided into three groups by activity and the groups were compared. A multiple linear regression model was used to predict FEC.

Results

Participants greater than or equal to 80 years are most prone to being sedentary for long periods, while women and the obese are the groups most likely to spend insufficient time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Rarely active elderly people had a decreased proportion of long bouts of MVPA and light PA and of short bouts in sedentary behavior than frequently active subjects did (p < 0.001). As predictors of FEC, younger age, lower BMI, male sex, better lung function, absence of multimorbidity, longer times and longer bouts of MVPA emerged as significant parameters (r2 = 0.54). Patterns of MVPA explained most of the variance.

Conclusions

PA patterns provide information beyond reports of activity alone. MVPA in elderly people may be increased by increasing the proportion of long bouts, in order to increase FEC as well as average PA. However, health conditions may limit PA. In rarely active people (often with reduced FEC, worse lung function, and diagnosis of multimorbidity or disability), longer periods of time in light PA may be sufficient to increase the overall level of activity.

Keywords:
Elderly; Aged; Older; Physical activity; Exercise; Pattern; Intensity; Movement; Ambulation