Table 3

Summary of level of evidence for the intervention strategies used in the included experimental studiesa
PRESCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOL Total
Intervention strategy Studies that investigated the intervention strategy Number of studies Studies that found significant positive effect [n(%)] Level of evidence Studies that investigated the intervention strategy Number of studies Studies that found significant positive effect [n(%)] Level of evidence Level of evidence
Decreased playground density Van Cauwenberghe, 2012 [42] 1 1 (100) No evidence 0 0 (10) No evidence No evidence
Provision of play equipment Hannon, 2008 [36] 2 1 (100) Inconclusive Bundy, 2008 [43] 2 2 (100) Inconclusive Moderate
Cardon, 2009 [33] Verstraete, 2006 [35]
Playground markings Cardon, 2009 [33] 1 1 (100) Inconclusive Stratton, 2000 [31] 2 1 (50) Inconclusive Inconclusive
Stratton, 2005 [32]
Promotion by staff Brown, 2009 [37,47] 1 0 (10) No evidence 0 0 (10) No evidence No evidence
Increase of recess duration Holmes, 2006 [38] 1 1 (100) No evidence 0 0 (10) No evidence No evidence
Allocating play space for team games 0 0 (10) No evidence Loucaides, 2009 [34] 1 1 (100) Inconclusive Inconclusive
Multicomponent Brown, 2009 [37,47] 2 0 (10) Inconclusive Huberty, 2011 [39] 7 4 (57) Moderate Inconclusive
Cardon, 2009 [33] Loucaides, 2009 [34]
Ridgers, 2007 [28,29]
Ridgers, 2007 [28,29] (Longterm)
Ridgers, 2010 [30,49]
Brink, 2010 [41]
Colanbianchi, 2009 [40,46]

aLevel of evidence was based on study design, study quality and sample size according to a flow chart of decision-making for level of evidence [16].

Broekhuizen et al.

Broekhuizen et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014 11:59   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-59

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