Table 4

Summary of associations between playground characteristics and physical activity in (pre)school children, according to included observational studies
Preschool Primary, secondary, mixed school Total
Studies that investigated the playground characteristic Number of studies Studies that found significant positive or negative associations (n (%)) Summary code of association Studies that investigated the playground characteristic Number of studies Studies that found significant positive or negative associations (n (%)) Summary code of association Summary code of association
HARDWARE
Playground size Boldemann, 2006 [58] 2 2 (100) ++ Fairclough, 2012 [50] 5 1 (20) 0 ?
Dowda, 2009 [45] Nielsen, 2010 [55]
Nielsen, 2012 [59]
Ridgers, 2010 [30,49]
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Surface type Cardon, 2008 [57] 1 0 (0) 0 Willenberg, 2010 [51] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Surface with vegetation/green Boldemann, 2006 [58] 2 1 (50) ? Haug, 2008 [54] 2 0 (0) 0 0
Cardon, 2008 [57] Haug, 2010 [53]
SOFTWARE
Coverage/shade 0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Play equipment (unspecified) 0 0 (0) 0 McKenzie, 2010 [48] 7 6 (86) ++ ++
McKenzie, 2010[48]
Haug, 2008 [54]
Haug, 2010[53]
Haug, 2010 [53]
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46]
Lack of cleanliness 0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Safety 0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Quality 0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Balls Brown, 2009 [37,47] 2 1 (50) ? Zask, 2001 [52] 1 1 (100) +++ +++
Gubbels, 2012 [60]
Climbing structures Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Floor play equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Jumping equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Portable equipment (unspecified) Dowda, 2009 [45] 2 1 (50) ? Willenberg, 2010 [51] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
Cardon, 2008 [57]
Push/pull toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Riding toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 2 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Brown, 2009 [37,47]
Sand/water toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Slides Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - - 0 0 (0) 0 - - -
Sociodramatic props Brown, 2009 [37;47] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Twirling equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Balancing surfaces Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Benches and seating 0 0 (0) 0 Ridgers, 2010 [30,49] 2 0 (0) 0 0
Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46]
Climbing structures Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Fixed equipment (unspecified) Brown, 2009 [37,47] 2 1 (50) ? Taylor, 2011 [56] 7 6 (86) +++ +++
Permanent play facilities/improvements Dowda, 2009 [45] Willenberg, 2010 [51]
Nielsen, 2010 [55]
Nielsen, 2012 [59]
Ridgers, 2010 [30,49]
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Colabianchi, 2011[40,46]
Hopscotch/skipping rope area 0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010 [53] 1 1 (100) +++ +++
Merry-go-round Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Obstacle course 0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 2 1 (50) ? ?
Haug, 2010 [53]
Open field with no markings Brown, 2009 [37,47] 1 1 (100) ++ Haug, 2008 [54] 2 1 (50) ? ++
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Room for cardio/weightlifting 0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 2 0 (0) 0 0
Gym/sports hall Sallis, 2001 [44]
Sandbox Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - - 0 0 (0) 0 - - -
See-saw Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Ski/skateboard/skating facilities 0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010 [53] 3 1 (33) 0 0
Sledding hill Haug, 2008 [54]
Haug, 2010 [53]
Slides Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Soccer fields Cardon, 2008 57] 1 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010[53] 6 2 (33) 0 0
Areas with markings Willenberg, 2010 [51]
Haug, 2008 [54]
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Haug, 2010 [53]
Ridgers, 2010 [30,49]
Structured track Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) +++ 0 0 (0) 0 +++
Swinging equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - - 0 0 (0) 0 - - -
Tunnels Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 0 0 (0) 0 0
Trash cans 0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40,46] 1 1 (100) - - - - - -
Water and swimming facilities 0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 1 1 (100) - - - -
ORGWARE
Decreased playground density (m2/child) Cardon, 2008[57] 1 1 (100) ++ Ridgers, 2010 [30,49] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
Increased recess duration Cardon, 2008 [57] 1 1 (100) ++ Ridgers, 2010 [30,49] 1 0 (0) 0 ?
No organized activities 0 0 (0) 0 McKenzie, 2010[48] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
Supervision Cardon, 2008[57] 1 1 (100) - - McKenzie, 2010 [48] 6 2 (33) 0 ?
McKenzie, 2010[48]
Willenberg, 2010 [51]
Sallis, 2001 [44]
Zask, 2001 [52]
Ridgers, 2010 [30,49]

Studies with a + symbol indicate a significant positive association, studies with a - symbol indicate a significant negative association, and studies with a 0 symbol indicate no significant association; ♀/♂ in superscript indicates an association that only accounts for girls/boys. Summary codes: a 0 symbol as summary code indicates no association; a ? symbol as summary code indicates indeterminate/inconclusive association; a + symbol as summary code indicates a positive association and a – symbol as summary code indicates a negative association. The number of characters relate to the quality of the studies; one + or – for studies of poor quality (≤5.0 points), ++ or - for studies of moderate quality (5.5-8.0 points), and +++ or - - - for studies of high quality (≥8.5 points). Note: if ≥ 4 studies an additional + or – was also assigned [13].

Broekhuizen et al.

Broekhuizen et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014 11:59   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-59

Open Data