Table 2

Pattern of findings for links between environmental attributes (perceived and objective) and children's physical activity.

Associations with physical activity


Environmental Attribute

Perceived Environment

Objectively measured environment

Adult report

Child report


Recreational infrastructure

Private

Home equipment

0(19) 0(25) 0(26) +(F)(31) +(20)

0(22)

Public

Proximity of playgrounds and parks

0(B)(16) 0(28) +(22)

0(B)(16) +(24)

+(M)(21)

Availability recreation facilities

0(28) +(18)

0(F)(19) +(27) +(32) +(20) +(F)(24)+(F)(34)

+(F)(17) +(F)(37)

Spending on recreational infrastructure

0(17)

Distance to school (school location)

-(36) -(F)(38) -(33)

School size

0(30) 0(33)

Equipment/play structures in school play areas

+(20)

0(35) +(23) +(29)

Transport infrastructure

Provision of amenities

Presence of sidewalks

0(32)

+(33) +(39)

Street and sidewalk conditions

+(40)

Presence of bike lanes/ease of cycling

-(M)(18)

0(40) 0(33)

Presence of controlled crossings

+(M)(24)

+(39)

Connectivity of street network

0(32)

+(30) -(36) +(F)(37)

Access to destinations

+(32) -(F)(18)

+(M)(37)

Availability of public transportation

+(F)(24)

Road hazards

Number of roads to cross

-(24)

Traffic (density/speed)

-(M)(24) -(18)

-(36)

Pedestrian and cyclist safety

+(F)(18)

Steep terrain

-(36)

Local conditions

Safety and neighborhood disorder

Perceived safety

0(45) 0(B)(16) 0(28) 0(48) +(44)

0(27) 0(B)(16) 0(32) +(F)(21)

Area deprivation and crime

-(F)(17) -(F)(21) -(43)

Roaming dogs

-(18)

Social disorder/stranger danger

0(24)

-(44)

Physical disorder/tidiness of area

0(40) -(44)

Aesthetics of neighborhood

+(32)

Region and weather

Month of year (average temperature)

0(43) -11 -(M)(17)

Unsuitable weather

0(46)

0(47) -(17)

Region of the United States

0(43)

Rural/suburban versus urban

0(47)+(B)(42) -(W)(42)

Population density

+(30) 0(33)


Note:

1 Associations identified with physical activity: +, significant positive association; -, significant negative association; 0, no association.

Superscript numbers = reference number.

Effects that are specific to particular demographic groups are noted as follows: M = males; F = females; B = Black/African American sample or subgroup

Davison and Lawson International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006 3:19   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-19

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