Table 1

Criteria for inclusion and exclusion

Papers meeting inclusion criteria


a) Investigate determinants of fruit and/or vegetable intake, either as the primary focus or as one of more outcomes

b) Identify fruit and vegetable consumption differentiated from other outcomes, either in a combined fruit and vegetable measure, as separate fruit and vegetable outcomes or as individual measures of specific fruits and vegetables

c) Are based on populations within an identifiable age-range of 6 to 18 years

d) Are population, community or school-based

e) Are based on research with humans


Papers to be excluded are


a) Qualitative papers

b) Papers reported in languages other than English

c) Review papers

d) Papers with methodological aims as the main purpose, for instance validation papers

e) Evaluation papers from interventions

f) Papers only describing prevalences, thus without analytical approach

g) Papers with analytical designs in which fruit and vegetable consumption is not clearly considered to be an outcome, but rather a determinant or a correlate without any hypothetical causal association (e.g. papers on BMI/fatness, dieting/weight control, other health behaviours – e.g. physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking)


Rasmussen et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006 3:22   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-22

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