Table 2

Validity assessment scheme: design and methodological characteristics of all included papers

Characteristics

Reference no.


World part/country


Asia

Bahrain: 17

Bangladesh: 18

China: 19, 20

India: 21

Europe

Belgium: 22, 23, 24, 25

Denmark: 26

England: 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32

Finland: 33, 34, 35

Greece: 36

Luxembourg: 37

Netherlands: 38

Northern Ireland: 39, 40

Norway: 41, 42, 43

Scotland: 44, 45, 46, 47

Sweden: 48, 49, 50, 51, 52

North America

Canada: 53, 54

USA: 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102

Oceania

Australia: 103, 104, 105, 106

New Zealand: 107, 108

Tasmania: 109, 110, 111, 112, 113

South America

Costa Rica: 114


Design


Longitudinal

20, 39, 42, 46, 52, 59, 65, 79

Cross-sectional

17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114


Theoretical basis (some papers may be marked more than once)


Explicitly theory based

Social Cognitive Theory: 91, 93

Theory of Planned Behaviour: 79

The Stages-of-Change Trans-theoretical Model: 61

Theoretical framework

Social Cognitive Theory: 41, 42, 43, 64, 67, 73, 75, 82, 86, 90, 102

Theory of Planned Behaviour: 22, 82

Social Learning Theory: 22

Problem Behaviour Theory: 43

No theory applied

17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114


Sample size (individual level)


Not reported

73

< 500

18, 21, 22, 27, 33, 45, 50, 52, 53, 56, 62, 64, 66, 67, 71, 74, 77, 83, 88, 93, 95, 102, 107, 114

500–1000

19, 20, 26, 31, 34, 39, 40, 42, 43, 46, 59, 63, 65, 72, 76, 92, 104, 105, 106, 108

> 1000

17, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 47, 48, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 68, 69, 70, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113,


Age groups


Single age group

28, 30, 32, 35, 41, 43, 50, 56, 57, 61, 69, 71, 75, 76, 82, 86, 88, 93, 97, 105, 107, 108

Multiple age groups/grades

17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114

Not specified

72, 73


Response rate (individual level)


Not reported

17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 34, 36, 38, 40, 47, 49, 50, 53, 54, 60, 62, 64, 66, 71, 73, 74, 77, 78, 85, 88, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 109, 113

< 40%

29, 45

40%–70%

22, 30, 52, 55, 56, 65, 70, 81, 84, 91, 99, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108

71%–90%

28, 32, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51, 58, 59, 63, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76, 80, 83, 86, 87, 89, 90, 97, 98, 110, 111, 112

91%–100%

19, 26, 27, 33, 57, 61, 75, 79, 82, 106, 114,


Representative sample


Information not available in paper

20, 23, 27, 28, 34, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 65, 67, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 83, 88, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 100, 106, 108

Not representative beyond study population

19, 21, 22, 29, 31, 32, 40, 45, 47, 53, 57, 61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 71, 76, 78, 85, 86, 89, 90, 95, 103, 105, 107, 114

Representative for restricted area

17, 18, 33, 46, 49, 51, 52, 63, 66, 79, 82, 84, 87,

Representative for region/county

26, 30, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 48, 50, 99, 101, 102

Representative for state/nation

24, 25, 36, 38, 39, 44, 58, 80, 81, 94, 98, 104, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113


Item descriptions


No detailed item descriptions (precise wording)

17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114

Some items described in details (precise wording)

19, 23, 26, 28, 33, 38, 41, 59, 60, 70, 72, 73, 79, 81, 85, 87, 96, 97, 98, 101, 104,

All items described in details (precise wording)

32, 36, 42, 44, 48, 94


Instrument for measuring F and/or V intake


FFQ

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 57, 59, 60, 61, 68, 69, 70, 72, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 108, 109, 113

24-h-recall

17, 34, 58, 66, 71, 75, 76, 83, 88, 92, 93, 103, 104, 105, 107

Food diary/record

27, 29, 30, 31, 45, 55, 64, 67, 73, 74, 77, 91, 110, 111, 112, 114

Others

39, 51, 56, 62, 63, 65, 89, 90

Information not provided

54


Differentiation of outcome measure


Single F and/or V items

47, 53, 108, 109, 113

Only fruit

24, 25, 38, 40, 62, 88

Only vegetables

35

F and V separately

17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 60, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 76, 77, 78, 83, 85, 87, 89, 95, 97, 98, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 112, 114

F and V combined

19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 41, 42, 43, 57, 58, 61, 64, 70, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96, 101, 102, 110, 111

Separately and combined

54, 55, 59, 67, 72, 73, 74, 92, 99


Validity of applied measurements


No information

17, 20, 24, 27, 31, 36, 39, 46, 47, 49, 57, 58, 60, 71, 74, 76, 77, 78, 81, 84, 98, 103, 105, 106, 107, 114

Only reference(s) to former publications

21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 32, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 59, 65, 68, 69, 70, 72, 80, 83, 87, 88, 89, 92, 99, 104, 110, 111, 112

Validity assessed for all or some items/scales within the applied study population

18, 19, 22, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 55, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 73, 75, 79, 82, 85, 86, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 108, 109, 113


Analysis


Uni-variate (including stratified analyses)

18, 21, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47, 51, 53, 57, 60, 65, 78, 83, 89, 90, 94, 95, 101, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114

Multivariate

19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32, 35, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 113

Descriptive

17, 26, 27, 54, 62, 71, 77, 88, 107

Not specified

74


F = fruit; V = vegetables; FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; 24-h recall = 24 hour recall

Rasmussen et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006 3:22   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-22

Open Data