Table 1 

Effect of free subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme; while provided (May 2002) and three years later (May 2005). 

Adjusted mean values* 
Change in adjusted values* 

Sept. 01 
May 02 
May 05 
Sept. 01 to May 02 
Sept. 01 to May 05 (**) 



FV at school (portions/day) 

Boys 
Free fruit (n = 291) 
0.16 
0.66 
0.21 
0.50 
0.05 
Control (n = 646) 
0.19 
0.16 
0.11 
0.03 
0.09 

difference 
0.03 
0.50 
0.10 
0.53 
0.13 (0.07) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.04) 

Girls 
Free fruit (n = 273) 
0.29 
0.76 
0.37 
0.48 
0.08 
Control (n = 644) 
0.32 
0.24 
0.25 
0.08 
0.07 

difference 
0.03 
0.53 
0.12 
0.56 
0.15 (0.07) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.04) 



FV all day (portions/day) 

Boys 
Free fruit (n = 300) 
1.25 
1.42 
1.22 
0.18 
0.03 
Control (n = 670) 
1.57 
1.18 
1.16 
0.39 
0.41 

difference 
0.32 
0.24 
0.06 
0.57 
0.38 (0.31) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.008) 

Girls 
Free fruit (n = 281) 
1.95 
2.18 
1.91 
0.23 
0.04 
Control (n = 675) 
2.03 
1.57 
1.54 
0.46 
0.48 

difference 
0.07 
0.62 
0.37 
0.69 
0.44 (0.35) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.008) 



Usual FV intake (times/week) 

Boys 
Free fruit (n = 294) 
12.1 
12.9 
12.7 
0.8 
0.6 
Control (n = 644) 
13.2 
12.7 
12.2 
0.5 
1.0 

difference 
1.1 
0.2 
0.6 
1.3 
1.6 (0.9) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.04) 

Girls 
Free fruit (n = 273) 
15.6 
16.4 
16.2 
0.8 
0.6 
Control (n = 651) 
15.1 
14.6 
14.1 
0.5 
1.0 

difference 
0.5 
1.8 
2.2 
1.3 
1.6 (0.9) 

pvalue 
<0.001 
<0.001 (0.04) 



Soda/candy/chips (times/week) 

Boys 
Free fruit (n = 572) 
6.0 
5.8 
5.9 
0.2 
0.1 
Control (n = 1303) 
6.5 
6.6 
6.6 
0.1 
0.2 

difference 
0.4 
0.8 
0.7 
0.3 
0.3 (0.2) 

pvalue 
0.07 
0.31 (0.48) 

Girls 
Free fruit (n = 572) 
5.3 
5.1 
4.6 
0.2 
0.7 
Control (n = 1303) 
5.7 
5.9 
5.2 
0.2 
0.6 

difference 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 
0.3 
0.2 (0.1) 

pvalue 
0.07 
0.31 (0.48) 



* Data were analysed by a linear mixed model for repeated measures. Fixed effects were intervention condition, gender, class level, and time (survey). Random effects were added for pupil and school, where pupils were nested within schools. Interaction effects included in the models: time and intervention condition (all models), sex and intervention condition (FV all day, usual FV intake), time and sex (FV at school, soda/candy/chips). ** Numbers in the parenthesis are adjusted for individual subscription to the school fruit programme. For usual FV intake an interaction between individual subscription and intervention was included. 

Bere et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007 4:5 doi:10.1186/1479586845 