Table 1

Effect of free subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme; while provided (May 2002) and three years later (May 2005).

Adjusted mean values*

Change in adjusted values*

Sept. 01

May 02

May 05

Sept. 01 to May 02

Sept. 01 to May 05 (**)


FV at school (portions/day)

Boys

Free fruit (n = 291)

0.16

0.66

0.21

0.50

0.05

Control (n = 646)

0.19

0.16

0.11

-0.03

-0.09

difference

-0.03

0.50

0.10

0.53

0.13 (0.07)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.04)

Girls

Free fruit (n = 273)

0.29

0.76

0.37

0.48

0.08

Control (n = 644)

0.32

0.24

0.25

-0.08

-0.07

difference

-0.03

0.53

0.12

0.56

0.15 (0.07)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.04)


FV all day (portions/day)

Boys

Free fruit (n = 300)

1.25

1.42

1.22

0.18

-0.03

Control (n = 670)

1.57

1.18

1.16

-0.39

-0.41

difference

-0.32

0.24

0.06

0.57

0.38 (0.31)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.008)

Girls

Free fruit (n = 281)

1.95

2.18

1.91

0.23

-0.04

Control (n = 675)

2.03

1.57

1.54

-0.46

-0.48

difference

-0.07

0.62

0.37

0.69

0.44 (0.35)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.008)


Usual FV intake (times/week)

Boys

Free fruit (n = 294)

12.1

12.9

12.7

0.8

0.6

Control (n = 644)

13.2

12.7

12.2

-0.5

-1.0

difference

-1.1

0.2

0.6

1.3

1.6 (0.9)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.04)

Girls

Free fruit (n = 273)

15.6

16.4

16.2

0.8

0.6

Control (n = 651)

15.1

14.6

14.1

-0.5

-1.0

difference

0.5

1.8

2.2

1.3

1.6 (0.9)

p-value

<0.001

<0.001 (0.04)


Soda/candy/chips (times/week)

Boys

Free fruit (n = 572)

6.0

5.8

5.9

-0.2

-0.1

Control (n = 1303)

6.5

6.6

6.6

0.1

0.2

difference

-0.4

-0.8

-0.7

-0.3

-0.3 (-0.2)

p-value

0.07

0.31 (0.48)

Girls

Free fruit (n = 572)

5.3

5.1

4.6

-0.2

-0.7

Control (n = 1303)

5.7

5.9

5.2

0.2

-0.6

difference

-0.4

-0.7

-0.6

-0.3

-0.2 (-0.1)

p-value

0.07

0.31 (0.48)


* Data were analysed by a linear mixed model for repeated measures. Fixed effects were intervention condition, gender, class level, and time (survey). Random effects were added for pupil and school, where pupils were nested within schools. Interaction effects included in the models: time and intervention condition (all models), sex and intervention condition (FV all day, usual FV intake), time and sex (FV at school, soda/candy/chips).

** Numbers in the parenthesis are adjusted for individual subscription to the school fruit programme. For usual FV intake an interaction between individual subscription and intervention was included.

Bere et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007 4:5   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-5

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