Table 2

Study and participant characteristics for studies with directly comparable data

First Author – Year

Age Range or Mean (SD)

Nanalyzed

Population

Direct Measure

Indirect Measure

Units

Testing Conditions*

Total

Men

Women


Adams 2003 A

40–65

80

0

80

Disease free

Accel

7-day PAR – Light

kcal/kg/day

A

Adams 2003 B

Accel

7-day PAR – MPA

Adams 2003 C

Accel

7-day PAR – VPA

Adams 2005 A

40–65

80

0

80

Disease free

DLW

7-day PAR 1

kcal/kg/day

C

Adams 2005 B

DLW

7-day PAR 2

Adams 2005 C

DLW

24-hr PAR

Ainsworth 1993 A

23–59

75

27

48

White collar workers

Accel

7-day PAR

average MET

NS

Ainsworth 1993 B

Accel

Tecumseh

Ainsworth 1993 C

Accel

PAR

Ainsworth 2000

20–60

50

0

50

Females

Accel

KPAS

MET-min/day

A

Atienza 2005

60.3 (9.1)

15

0

15

Filipino American

Accel

3-day PAD

min/3-day

A

Barnard 2002

22–59

15

8

7

Healthy volunteers

DLW

MAQ

MJ

NS

Bassett 2000

25–70

96

48

48

General population

Ped

CAQ

kcal/week

D

Bernstein 1998

35–69

41

18

23

General population

HRM

PAFQ

kcal/day

C

Bonnefoy 2001

66–82

19

19

0

Elderly

DLW

QAPSE

kcal/day

A

Boulay 1994 A

21 (5)

15

15

0

X-Country skiers

HRM

3-day PAD

MJ/day

C

Boulay 1994 B

22 (1)

Controls

HRM

Buchowski 1999 A

20–50

115

45

70

Volunteers – Normal

Indirect cal.

PAD ≤ 2.4 METS

min/day

A

Buchowski 1999 B

Indirect cal.

PAD 2.5–4.4 METS

Buchowski 1999 C

Indirect cal.

PAD ≥ 4.5 METS

Buchowski 1999 D

Volunteers – Exercise

Indirect cal.

PAD ≤ 2.4 METS

Buchowski 1999 E

Indirect cal.

PAD 2.5–4.4 METS

Buchowski 1999 F

Indirect cal.

PAD ≥ 4.5 METS

Clark 1994 A

37.3 (3.6)

14

0

14

Large eaters

DLW

PAD

MJ/day

C

Clark 1994 B

39.7 (2.0)

Small eaters

DLW

Conway 2002 A

42 (2.3)

24

24

0

Feeding study

DLW

Minnesota

MJ/day

C

Conway 2002 B

DLW

Tecumseh

Conway 2002 AA

41.2 (2.0)

24

24

0

Feeding study

DLW

PAR

MJ/day

C

Conway 2002 BB

DLW

Stanford

Davis 2004 A

19–69

62

24

38

Obese

Accel

YPAS

kcal/day

NS

Davis 2004 B

Accel

kcal/kg/day

Davis 2004 C

Normal weight

Accel

kcal/day

Davis 2004 D

Accel

kcal/kg/day

Ekelund 2006 A

20–69

185

87

98

Swedish adults

Accel

IPAQ – MPA

min/day

A

Ekelund 2006 B

Accel

IPAQ – VPA

Fogelholm 1998

29–46

20

0

20

Overwgt premenopause

HRM

PAD

min/day

A

Friedenreich 2006 A

35–65

154

75

79

Healthy Canadians

Accel

PAQ

MET-hr/week

B

Friedenreich 2006 B

Accel

7-day PAR

MET-hr/week

Friedenreich 2006 C

Accel

PAQ

hr/week

Friedenreich 2006 D

Accel

7-day PAR

hr/week

Hagfors 2005

diet 58.8 (9.9), control 59.5 (8.1)

9

3

6

Rheumatoid Arthritis

DLW

3-day PAR

MJ/day

C

Hayden-Wade 2003 A

18–67

69

25

44

Active and sedentary

Accel

7-day PAR – MPA

min/week

A

Hayden-Wade 2003 B

Accel

7-day PAR – Hard

Hayden-Wade 2003 C

Accel

7-day PAR – Vhard

Iqbal 2006 A

26 (3.8)

50

0

50

Pakistani

Accel

MOSPA – LT

kcal/day

A

Iqbal 2006 B

Accel

MOSPA – ST

Irwin 2001 A

27–65

24

24

0

Adult men

DLW

7-day PAR

kcal/day

C

Irwin 2001 B

DLW

PAL

Jacobs Jr 1993 A

20–59

78

28

50

Accel

Minnesota

MET/min/day

NS

Jacobs Jr 1993 B

Accel

7-day PAR

Jacobs Jr 1993 C

Accel

CAQ

Jakicic 1998 A

25–50

50

0

50

Overwgt under reporters

Accel

PAR

min/week

A

Jakicic 1998 B

Overwgt over reporters

Accel

PAR

Johnson Kozlow 2006 A

35–77

96

0

96

Breast cancer

Accel

IPAQ

min/week

A

Johnson Kozlow 2006 B

63

0

63

7-day PAR

Johnson-Kozlow 2007

38–72

63

0

63

Breast cancer

Accel

WHIQ

min/week

A

Koulouri 2006 A

28.3 (6.0)

10

Healthy – baseline

Ped

PAD

KJ

A

Koulouri 2006 B

Healthy – intervention

Ped

Lasuzzo 2004

71.7 (8.2)

39

19

20

Seniors

Accel

Fullerton

MET-min/day

A

Leenders 1998 A

18–40

10

0

10

Healthy females

Accel, HRM, DLW

7-day PAR

kcal/day

A

Leenders 1998 B

Accel, DLW

PAEE

kcal/day

Leenders 2000

26 (6.6)

12

0

12

Healthy college

Accel, Ped

7-day PAR

kcal/kg/day

A

Leenders 2001

21–37

13

0

13

Healthy females

Accel, Ped, DLW

7-day PAR

kcal/day

A

Lemmer 2001 A

20–30

40

21

19

Younger males

Accel

PAQ

kJ/day

C

Lemmer 2001 B

65–75

Older males

Accel

Levin 1999 A

21–59

77

28

49

Healthy volunteers

Accel

4-week PAR

MET-min/day

C

Levin 1999 B

SAFE

Liu 2001

22–86

31

Elderly Chinese

Indirect cal.

PAQ

kcal

NS

Lof 2003 A

21–41

34

0

34

Healthy Swedish

Accel, HRM, DLW

PAQ – TEE

kJ/24-hour

A

Lof 2003 B

HRM

PAQ – PAEE

Lovejoy 2001 A

47.4 (0.2)

149

0

149

Premenopausal African

Accel

PAQ

kJ/day

D

Lovejoy 2001 B

Premenopausal White

Accel

kJ/day

Masse 1999

35–61

31

0

31

Volunteers

Accel

3-day PAD

kcal/day

A

Matthews 1995 A

26.7

25

14

11

University volunteers

Accel

3-day PAL

kcal/day

A

Matthews 1995 B

7-day PAR

Matthews 2005 A

46

69

Volunteers

Accel

24-hr PAR

min/day

C

Matthews 2005 B

Accel

min/wk

Matthews 2005 C

Accel

STAR Closed

min/day

Matthews 2005 D

Accel

min/wk

Matthews 2005 E

Accel

STAR Open

min/day

Matthews 2005 F

Accel

min/wk

McDermott 2000 A

67.2 (7.0)

41

19

22

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Accel

LTPAQ

kcal/week

A

McDermott 2000 B

66.1 (5.4)

Non-PAD

Accel

Meriwether 2006 A

20–61

63

10

58

Volunteers

Accel

PAAT

min/week

A

Meriwether 2006 B

Accel

IPAQ

Miller 2005 A

61.6 (7.2)

13

Diabetic/CABG intervention

Accel

7-day PAD

kcal/kg/day

D

Miller 2005 B

Diabetic/CABG control

Accel

Paton 1996

26–45

10

10

0

HIV positive

DLW

PAD

PA Level

A

Paul 2005

39 (9)

12

12

0

Non-smoking

DLW

7-day PAQ

MJ/day

A

Pitta 2005 A

61 (8)

13

10

3

COPD – Walking

Accel

1-day PAD

mins.

A

Pitta 2005 B

COPD – Cycling

Accel

Pitta 2005 C

COPD – Standing

Accel

Pitta 2005 D

COPD – Sitting

Accel

Pitta 2005 E

COPD – Lying

Accel

Racette 1995 A

21–47

14

0

14

Obese

HRM, DLW

7-day PAR

MJ/day

C

Racette 1995 B

HRM

kcal/day

Richardson 1994 A

20–59

78

28

50

Healthy

Accel

Minnesota

MET/min/day

C

Richardson 1994 B

Accel

4-week PAQ

Richardson 1994 C

Accel

48-hr PAL

Richardson 1995

20–59

78

28

50

Healthy

Accel

Baecke

MET/min/day

A

Richardson 2001

20–59

77

27

50

Healthy

Accel

Stanford 7-day PAR

MET/min/day

A

Rothenberg 1998

73

20

8

12

Healthy, free-living

HRM, DLW

PAD

MJ/day

C

Rutgers 1997 A

68–78

13

0

13

Elderly – individual calibration

HRM

PAQ

MJ/day

A

Rutgers 1997 B

Elderly – group calibration

HRM

Schmidt 2003 A

39–65

58

0

58

College – Freedson

Accel

PAL

min/day

A

Schmidt 2003 B

College – Hendelman

Accel

Schmidt 2003 C

College – Swartz

Accel

Schmidt 2006 A

18–47

54

0

54

Pregnant – Freedson

Accel

PPAQ

MET-min/day

C

Schmidt 2006 B

Pregnant – Hendelman

Accel

Schmidt 2006 C

Pregnant – Swartz

Accel

Schulz 1989 A

20–30

6

4

2

Healthy university

HRM – Proc 1

PAD – Procedure 5

MJ/day

A

Schulz 1989 B

HRM – Proc 2

PAD – Procedure 5

Schulz 1989 C

HRM – Proc 3

PAD – Procedure 5

Schulz 1989 D

HRM – Proc 4

PAD – Procedure 5

Schulz 1989 E

HRM – Proc 1

PAD – Procedure 6

Schulz 1989 F

HRM – Proc 2

PAD – Procedure 6

Schulz 1989 G

HRM – Proc 3

PAD – Procedure 6

Schulz 1989 H

HRM – Proc 4

PAD – Procedure 6

Schulz 1989 I

DLW

PAD – Procedure 5

Schulz 1989 J

DLW

PAD – Procedure 6

Seale 2002 A

67–82

27

14

13

Rural elderly

DLW

7-day PAR – PAWT

MJ/day

C

Seale 2002 B

DLW

7-day PAR – PABMR

Seale 2002 C

DLW

7-day PAR – PAREE

Sjostrom 2002 A

41 (10)

445

202

243

Swedish

Accel

IPAQ – MPA

min/day

A

Sjostrom 2002 B

Accel

IPAQ – VPA

Sobngwi 2001

19–68

89

44

45

Cameroonian

Accel

SSAAQ

MET-hr/day

C

Soundy 2005 A

52.9 (9.0)

9

Severe mental illness

Accel

PAQ – week 2

kcal/day

C

Soundy 2005 B

Accel

PAQ – week 6

Starling 1998

52–79

65

28

37

Older free-living

DLW

Minnesota

kcal/day

NS

Starling 1999 A

45–84

67

32

35

Older free-living

Accel, DLW

YPAS

kcal/day

NS

Starling 1999 B

Accel

Minnesota

Staten 2001 A

31–60

35

0

35

Sedentary

DLW

AAFQ (28-day)

kJ/day

NS

Staten 2001 B

DLW

AAFQ (7-day)

Stein 2003 A

30.6 (4.7)

56

0

56

Pregnant – active

Accel, HRM

PAL

kcal/day

A

Stein 2003 B

27.9 (5.4)

Pregnant – sedentary

Accel, HRM

Strath 2003 A

20–56

25

12

13

General population

Accel

CAQ – MPA

min/day

A

Strath 2003 B

Accel

CAQ – VPA

Strath 2003 C

Accel

CAQ – MPA+ VPA

Strath 2004

20–65

15

12

14

General population

Accel

CAQ (with HR)

MET-min/wk

NS

Taylor 1984 A

34–69

12

12

0

White males

Accel

Stanford

kcal/day

NS

Taylor 1984 B

Accel

kcal/kg/day

Taylor 1984 C

Accel

PAD

kcal/day

Taylor 1984 D

Accel

kcal/kg/day

Timperio 2003 A

M 37.8 (12.7),

122

55

63

Overweight

Accel

PAQ > 3 MET

min/day

A

Timperio 2003 B

F 39.6 (17.0)

Accel

PAQ 3–5.9 MET

Timperio 2003 C

Accel

PAQ > 6 MET

Timperio 2004 A

18–75

551

241

310

Free-living

Accel

AAS – Log

min/day

A

Timperio 2004 B

Accel

AAS – No log

Timperio 2004 C

Accel

IPAQ-S – Log

Timperio 2004 D

Accel

IPAQ-S – No log

Timperio 2004 E

Accel

IPAQ-L – Log

Timperio 2004 F

Accel

IPAQ-L – No log

Timperio 2004 G

Accel

BRFSS – Log

Timperio 2004 H

Accel

BRFSS – No log

Tzetzis 2001

19–21

75

33

42

Novice skiers

HRM

PAQ

time/task

B

Wadsworth 2006 A

18–24

71

0

71

College – controls

Accel

IPAQ – MPA

min/day

A

Wadsworth 2006 B

College – controls

Accel

IPAQ – VPA

Wadsworth 2006 C

College – intervention

Accel

IPAQ – MPA

Wadsworth 2006 D

College – intervention

Accel

IPAQ – VPA

Walsh 2004 A

20–46

75

0

75

Overweight White

DLW

Tecumseh

kcal/day

NS

Walsh 2004 B

Overweight Black

DLW

Walsh 2004 C

Control White

DLW

Walsh 2004 D

Control Black

DLW

Washburn 2003

18–33

46

17

29

Sedentary mod obese

DLW

PAR

kJ/day

C

Wendel-Vos 2003 A

44 (6)

50

36

14

Healthy bank workers

Accel

PAQ 2–4 MET

MET

D

Wendel-Vos 2003 B

Accel

PAQ 4–6.5 MET

Wendel-Vos 2003 C

Accel

PAQ 6.5+ MET

Wickel 2006

18–23

70

13

57

University

Accel

PAD

kcal/day

A

Wilbur 2001 A

45–65

156

0

156

Healthy employees

HRM

PAQ

min/walk

A

Wilbur 2001 B

HRM

PAL


* A – measuring same length of time (e.g. 7-days, 1 week) and no time lag, B – same length with time lag, C – different length with no time lag, D – different length with a time lag, NS – not stated

Abbreviations: AAFQ – Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire, AAS – Active Australia Survey, Accel. – accelerometer, BRFSS – Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Cal. – calorimetry, CABG – Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, CAQ – College Alumnus Questionnaire, COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DLW – doubly labeled water, F – female, Fullerton – Fullerton Physical Activity Questionnaire, HRM – heart rate monitor, IPAQ – International Physical Activity Questionnaire, kcal – kilocalorie, kJ – kilojoules, KPAS – Kaiser Physical Activity Survey, LTPAQ – Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, M – male, MAQ – Modifiable Activity Questionnaire, MET – metabolic equivalent, MJ – mega joules, min – minute, Minnesota – Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, MOSPA – Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity questionnaire, MPS – moderate physical activity, PAAT – Physical Activity Assessment Tool, PAD – physical activity diary, PAEE – physical activity energy expenditure, PAFQ – Physical Activity Frequency Questionnaire, PAL – physical activity log, PAQ – physical activity questionnaire, PAR – physical activity recall, Ped. – pedometer, SAFE – Survey of Activity, Fitness, and Exercise, SSAAQ – Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Questionnaire, Stanford – Stanford Physical Activity Questionnaire, STAR – Short Telephone-administered Activity Recall, Tecumseh – Tecumseh Community Health Survey, TEE – total energy expenditure, Vhard – very hard, VPA – vigorous physical activity, WHIQ – Women's Health Initiative Questionnaire, wk – week, YPAS – Yale Physical Activity Survey

Prince et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008 5:56   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-56

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