Table 11

Summary of Correlates of Less Healthy Dietary Consumption among Children and Adolescents

Determinant Variable

Association (Reference no.)

No association (Reference no.)

Attitude towards health

Pos assoc: X:[110]

M:[108], M:[41]


Pos assoc: X:[43]boys, X:[43]girls


Family Connectedness

Pos assoc: S:[77]very low, S:[77]low; T:[77]very low,

T:[77]low, T:[77]moderate


Number of Meals Family Eats Together

Pos assoc: S:[94]6–7 per week, S:[94]4–5 per week,

T:[94]6–7 per week, T:[94]4–5 per week,

U:[94]6–7 per week, U:[94]4–5 per week,



Pos assoc:AA:[76]to consume sugar snacks or drinks,

J:[107]to eat breakfast,

K:[107]to eat breakfast,

X:[110]to consume sugar snacks or drinks

M:[108]to consume high fat milk,


Pos assoc: E:[111], F:[97]

Y:[97], M:[97], M:[41]general knowledge, M:[41]specific knowledge

Lack of Family Conflict

X:[43]boys, X:[43]girls


Pos assoc: M:[97], F:[97], Y:[97]



Pos assoc: X:[110]parents X:[110]friends, Y:[97]parents, Y:[97]peers, M: [97]parents, AA:[97]parents, AA:[97]peers


Modeling (Reported by Other)

Pos assoc: X:[43]mother boys

X:[43]mother girls


M:[108], X:[110]parents

Parental Influence in food decision-making

S:[94], T:[94], U:[94]

Parental Presence

S:[94]when child leaves for school,

S:[94]when kid returns home from school, T:[94]when child leaves for school,

T:[94]when kid returns home from school, U:[94]when child leaves for school,

U:[94]when kid returns home from school

Parenting Style (Reported by Parent)

X:[43]indulgent boys, X:[43]indulgent girls

Perceived Behavioral Control

Pos assoc: J:[107], K:[107], B:[55]boys

B:[55], M:[108], B:[55]girls

Perceived Difficulty


Poor School Achievement

Pos assoc: S:[77], T:[77]

Weight Dissatisfaction

Pos assoc: S:[77], T:[77]

Weight Perception

Pos assoc: S:[94]as overweight, T:[94]as overweight,

U:[94]as overweight

S:[94]as underweight, T:[94]as underweight, U:[94]as underweight


Neg assoc: B:[55], B:[55]girls


Social Support for healthy eating

Neg assoc: AA:[38]

Social Support (Reported by Parent)

Pos assoc: X:[43]girls


LEGEND: A – Calcium; B – Healthy Dietary Behavior/Food Pyramid Score; C – Milk Intake; D – Dietary Quality Score; E – Sodium; F – Fruit; G – Yogurt Intake; H – Skimmed Milk: Fat; I – Low Fat Milk: Fat; J – Medium Fat Milk: Fat; K – Full Fat Milk: Fat; L – Cereal Intake; M – Margarine/Spread Intake; N – Bread and/or Toast Intake; O – Cheese; P – Low Fat Vending Snacks; Q – Yogurt; R – Green Vegetables; S – Inadequate Vegetable Consumption; T – Inadequate Fruit Consumption; U – Inadequate Dairy Consumption; V – Vegetables; W – Dairy; X – Snacks; Y – Butter; Z – Ice Cream; AA – Fat Snacks; BB – Tofu

McClain et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009 6:54   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-54

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