Table 2

Design and Methodological Characteristics of All Included Articles

Characteristics

Reference Number


Country


Australia

[62,97,43]

Austria

[42,87]a

Belgium

[42,87]c, [93,96]

China

[90,73]

Denmark

[85,42]

England

[60,95]

Greece

[68,86]

Iceland

[70,42]

Mexico

[79]

Netherlands

[54,74,76,82,96,42,69,110]

Norway

[40,109,42,87]b

Portugal

[42]

Spain

[42]

Sweden

[107,41,108,42]

Uganda

[37,102,103]

United States

[38,104,39,44,48,47,106,53,56,61,63,66,67,71,72,75,78,81,83,84,113,88,94,98,111,46,101,55,65,77,59,80,112,92,91]


Design


Experimental

[113,112]

Prospective

[105,104,107,102,103,101,110,111,106,109]

Cross-Sectional

[52,56,60,38,41,48,58,72,85,88,47,51,90,98,57,66,75,84,37,44,50,74,95,100,40,81-83,89,97,71,78,94,46,43,55,65,73,70,69,77,59,80,87,92,91,93,68]


Sample Size


<50

[52,56,113,112]

51–99

[60]

100–499

[38,41,48,58,72,85,88,105,39,47,49,51,106,108,90,98,53,57,61,62,66,75,84,99,111,45,46,102,103,43,55,65,68,59,79,92,91,93]

500–999

[37,104,44,63,64,67,109,74,76,95,100,101,69,80,87]a

1000–2999

[40,107,81-83,89,96,97,73,70,86,87]b, [87]c,[110]

3000–4999

[71,78,50]

>/= 5000

[94,42,77]


Age Groups


Children: (mean age < 13)

[52,56,60,48,47,106,53,82,66,84,111,37,44,95,83,88,96,51,75,61,89,113,64,42,46,55,65,68,73,70,59,79,80,86,112,87,92,91,93,38,58,100]

Adolescents: (mean age > age 13–18)

[99,104,63,109,74,78,39-41,72,105,49,90,98,57,54,62,50,81,97,71,94,85,67,76,107,108,102,103,101,43,69,77,110]


Ethnicity


Asian

[73] (Taiwanese)

Black

[37,51,45,108,102,103]

Hispanic

[38,79]

Native American

[55,65]

White

[49,98]

Diverse

[104,39,44,48,47,50,52,106,53,57,60,63,66,67,71,72,78,81,83,84,88,94,99,111,46,101,77,59,92,91]

Not Reported

[64,61,56,75,80,112,40] (Norwegian), [107] (Sweden), [41] (Sweden), [54] (Netherlands), [62] (Australia), [108] (Sweden), [109] (Norway), [74] (Netherlands), [76] (Netherlands), [82] (Netherlands), [85] (Denmark), [113,95] (British), [96] (Belgium and Netherlands), [97] (Australia), [42] (9 European Countries), [43] (Australia), [68] (Greece), [70] (Iceland), [69] (Netherlands), [86] (Greece), [87] (Austria, Spain, and Norway), [110] (Netherlands), [93] (Belgium)


Gender


Girls Only

[52,66,72,113,45]

Boys Only

[67,59]

Boys and Girls Combined

[37,104,107,44,48,47,50,51,106,53,56-58,60,63,74,78,81-83,85,88,94,111,102,103,42,55,65,68,73,70,69,77,79,112,87,92,91,110-93,62,46,101]

Boys and Girls, Separately

[105,49,84,71,46,101,80,55,100,62,43]


Instrument for Measuring Food Intake


24 hour recalls

[84,50]a, [75,100,45,65,70,79]

Food records

[48,47,52,60]b, [90,41,53,46,107,83,92,91]

Food Frequency Questionnaire

[60]a, [72,49,54,61,66,104,109,74,82,89,96,97,71,78,42,101,43,68,73,69,77,59,86,87,39,40]

Questionnaire (Unclear whether dietary intake was measured with a FFQ or another questionnaire)

[38,58,85,105,51,108,98,57,62,99,37,44,50]b,[63,64,67,76,95,81,94,102,103,55,80,110,93,88],

Other (Observation alone or with free-recall and weighed food intake)

[106,113,56,111,112]


Validity of Applied Dietary Measure


No Information

[56,60,113,38,88,105,57,37,50,76,107,98,85,64,67,71,75,81,82,102,103,43,55,77,79,112,92,110]

Referenced former publications

[48,47,58,61,99,95,54,74,45,46,101,42,65,68,70,69,80,86,87,91,39,63,84,111,44,52,49,51,106,89,83,94,100,41,97,109]

Validity Assessed for Dietary Measure

[104,72,78,40,96,53,66,90,73,59,93]


Reliability of Applied Dietary Measure


No Information

[56,60,38,41,48,85,108,98,57,75,104,50,64,67,74,95,107,82,71,113,102,103,42,73,77,79,112,92,110]

Referenced former publications

[58,101,43,65,68,70,69,80,87,91,39,63,84,44,111,72,52,47,49,51,61,66,94,100,54,62]

< 0.7

Cronbach's Alpha: [88,81,86,99]

Interclass Correlation: [45,83]fruit, [83]veg

Test-Retest: [96,78,109]fat, [59]juice, [59]veg, [93]fruit, [93]veg, [89]fat, [89]fiber, [89]fv

≥ 0.7

Cronbach's Alpha: [105,76]

Interclass Correlation: [46]fjv

Test-Retest: [90,40,97,109]fv, [109]sugar, [59]fruit,

Inter-observer Reliability: [106,55,37]


Assessment of Dietary Measure


Self-Report

[41,48,58,72,85,88,105,39,47,51,108,90,98,53,57,61,66,75,84,104,44,50,64,74,100,107,81,83,89,96,97,71,78,94,102,103,46,101,43,55,73,70,69,77,59,80,87,92,91,110-93,99,38,52]

Parent-Report

[37,95,82]

Parent- and Self-Report Together

[60,40,65]

Observation and Free Recall

[106]

Parent-Report and Observation

[111]

Weighed Food Intake Observation

[56,113,112]


Research Design Evaluation Score


Exceptional ****

[105,109]

Strong ***

[45,102,42,46,101,55,68,70,59,79,112,87,110,39,82,63,84,99,78,96,44,111,71,104,49,61,66,83,89,106,113,81,75,58,94,100,95,98,41,108,62,97,37,40,74,76]

Acceptable **

[65,73,69,77,80,86,92,91,93,64,72,38,47,51,50,48,53,56,57,67,88,60,54,85,90]

Weak *

[52]


McClain et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009 6:54   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-54

Open Data