Table 1

Mean trips per week made by different transport modes for selected participant characteristics

Trips·wk-1 (mean ± SD) a


Transport mode

n

Drive (car)

Passenger (car)

Active

Public/other

Total

Gender

Female

105

2.6 ± 2.7

2.2 ± 2.5

2.6 ± 2.7

1.0 ± 1.8

8.7 ± 3.9

Male

109

5.3 ± 3.6

1.0 ± 1.5

3.4 ± 3.6

0.5 ± 1.2

10.5 ± 5.6

T-test

t = -4.7, p < .001

t = 4.4, p < .001

t = -1.8, p = .08

t = 2.6, p = .01

t = 2.7, p = .008

Age group

70-74.9 y

76

5.6 ± 4.9

1.5 ± 2.2

3.6 ± 3.6

0.6 ± 1.3

11.5 ± 5.4

75-79.9 y

58

4.6 ± 4.2

1.5 ± 1.9

2.9 ± 3.1

0.6 ± 1.1

9.9 ± 4.7

80-84.9 y

54

2.4 ± 3.3

1.6 ± 2.0

2.6 ± 2.6

1.2 ± 2.1

8.2 ± 3.5

≥85 y

26

1.1 ± 1.9

2.0 ± 2.4

2.5 ± 3.2

0.6 ± 1.6

6.4 ± 4.2

ANOVA

F = 11.4, p < .001

F = 0.4, p = .725

F = 1.3, p = .280

F = 2.4, p = .068

F = 9.9, p < .001

BMI category

Normal (< 25 kg·m2) b

70

3.6 ± 4.6

1.4 ± 2.2

3.2 ± 3.4

1.4 ± 2.1

9.9 ± 4.6

Overweight (25.0-29.9 kg·m2)

86

4.2 ± 3.7

1.4 ± 1.8

3.5 ± 3.4

0.3 ± 0.8

9.6 ± 5.2

Obese (≥ 30 kg·m2)

58

4.1 ± 4.9

2.0 ± 2.4

2.0 ± 2.4

0.6 ± 1.3

9.2 ± 4.8

ANOVA

F = 0.4, p = .701

F = 2.1, p = .120

F = 3.9, p = .022

F = 10.4, p < .001

F = 0.4, p = .699

Physical Function (SPPB score category)

Low (≤6)

28

1.0 ± 1.4

2.1 ± 2.4

1.7 ± 2.8

0.5 ± 1.4

5.4 ± 3.6

Mid (7-9)

50

2.5 ± 3.2

1.6 ± 1.8

2.1 ± 2.3

0.9 ± 1.7

7.6 ± 3.8

High (≥10)

136

5.1 ± 4.6

1.5 ± 2.1

3.6 ± 3.4

0.8 ± 1.5

11.2 ± 4.9

ANOVA

F = 15.6, p < .001

F = 0.9, p = .401

F = 7.1, p = .001

F = 0.5, p = .619

F = 26.9, p < .001

Walking and mobility aid use

None

153

4.6 ± 4.4

1.5 ± 2.1

3.5 ± 3.3

0.7 ± 1.5

10.6 ± 4.7

Walking aid

55

2.4 ± 3.7

1.8 ± 2.0

2.6 ± 2.6

0.9 ± 1.8

7.5 ± 4.7

Mobility aid

6

2.2 ± 3.4

2.5 ± 2.3

0.0

0.3 ± 0.5

5.2 ± 2.1

ANOVA

F = 6.1, p = .003

F = 1.0, p = .368

F = 7.0, p = .001

F = 0.4, p = .664

F = 11.8, p < .001

Education c

Primary/middle

44

2.3 ± 4.1

1.9 ± 2.1

1.9 ± 2.3

0.8 ± 1.6

7.4 ± 4.7

Secondary

65

3.5 ± 4.1

1.7 ± 2.3

2.6 ± 2.4

1.0 ± 2.0

9.2 ± 4.6

Tertiary

104

5.0 ± 4.3

1.3 ± 1.9

3.7 ± 0.7

0.6 ± 1.2

10.9 ± 4.8

ANOVA

F = 6.7, p = .002

F = 1.3, p = .274

F = 6.1, p = .003

F = 1.4, p = .251

F = 9.1, p < .001

IMD d

Low

70

5.1 ± 4.2

1.5 ± 2.2

3.9 ± 3.9

0.5 ± 1.1

11.3 ± 4.7

Mid

73

3.4 ± 4.0

1.7 ± 2.3

2.3 ± 2.6

0.9 ± 1.8

8.6 ± 4.5

High

71

3.5 ± 4.7

1.5 ± 1.9

2.8 ± 2.8

1.0 ± 1.7

8.9 ± 5.2

ANOVA

F = 3.3, p = .038

F = 0.2, p = .801

F = 4.7, p = .010

F = 2.1, p = .121

F = 6.5, p = .002

Amenities within 5-min walk category e

None

18

1.3 ± 2.4

2.2 ± 2.7

1.4 ± 2.2

0.6 ± 1.5

5.8 ± 4.0

1

26

3.3 ± 3.9

2.1 ± 2.0

2.7 ± 3.3

0.5 ± 0.8

8.7 ± 4.3

2-3

56

4.4 ± 4.6

1.7 ± 2.0

2.6 ± 2.7

0.6 ± 1.4

9.7 ± 4.6

4-7

59

4.5 ± 4.6

1.1 ± 1.9

2.6 ± 2.9

1.0 ± 1.9

9.8 ± 5.1

≥8

55

4.2 ± 4.2

1.5 ± 2.2

4.4 ± 3.8

0.8 ± 1.6

11.1 ± 4.9

F = 2.3, p = .064

F = 1.6, p = .178

F = 4.5, p = .002

F = 0.8, p = .508

F = 4.5, p = .002

Home circumstances f

Live alone

77

3.3 ± 4.2

1.1 ± 1.7

3.0 ± 2.7

1.3 ± 2.0

9.0 ± 4.5

Live with others

128

4.4 ± 4.4

1.9 ± 2.3

3.0 ± 3.5

0.5 ± 1.2

10.0 ± 5.2

T-test

t = 1.8, p = .079

t = 2.8, p = .008

t = 0.1, p = .885

t = -3.7, p = .001

t = 1.4, p = .158

Number of cars in household

None

52

0.3 ± 0.9

1.4 ± 1.5

2.8 ± 2.7

1.9 ± 2.3

6.7 ± 3.2

1

126

4.7 ± 4.1

1.5 ± 2.2

3.2 ± 3.4

0.4 ± 1.0

10.1 ± 4.9

≥2

34

7.2 ± 4.7

2.1 ± 2.3

2.6 ± 3.4

0.3 ± 0.6

12.4 ± 4.9

ANOVA

F = 41.6, p < .001

F = 1.3, p = .276

F = 0.7, p = .505

F = 24.0, p < .001

F = 17.5, p < .001


a Trips per week calculated by number of trips made divided by the number of days for which log data was provided that could be matched with accelerometer data, multiplied by 7. b Normal weight includes eight participants whose BMI was < 18.5 kg·m2 (range 16.0 - 18.33 kg·m2). c Highest level of education achieved. Primary/middle includes those did some, but did not complete secondary school. Tertiary includes college and university education. One participant did not provide information on education. d IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation. e Amenities within 5-min walk category, number of amenities (e.g., shop, post office, park) that were perceived to be within a 5-minute walk of the participants home. f Seven females and two males failed to provide data on home circumstances. See Figure 2 for notes on transport modes.

Davis et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:116   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-116

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