Table 6

Socio-demographic correlates of dietary behaviors independently associated with higher BMI and overweight among Pakistani primary school children

Total Sample (n = 1860)

Skipping breakfast (n = 141)

Eating fast food and snacks once a week (n = 798)


Characteristics

n (%)

n (%)

χ2

P value

n (%)

χ2

P value


Gender

Boys

977 (52.5)

58 (5.9)

7.94

0.005

446 (45.6)

6.34

0.012

Girls

883 (47.5)

83 (9.4)

352 (39.9)

Area and socioeconomic status (SES)

Urban, high SES

465 (25.0)

68 (14.6)

50.79

< 0.001

274 (58.9)

233.88

< 0.001

Urban, middle SES

465 (25.0)

26 (5.6)

254 (54.6)

Urban, low SES

465 (25.0)

34 (7.3)

205 (44.1)

Rural, low/disadvantaged SES

465 (25.0)

13 (2.8)

65 (14.0)

Neighborhood income

Low

651 (35.0)

22 (3.4)

33.72

< 0.001

154 (23.7)

151.87

< 0.001

Middle

910 (48.9)

78 (8.6)

480 (52.7)

High

299 (16.1)

41 (13.7)

164 (54.8)

Parental education

Illiterate

366 (19.7)

13 (3.6)

23.78

< 0.001

64 (17.5)

176.82

< 0.001

High school

496 (26.7)

25 (5.0)

177 (35.7)

College

531 (28.5)

54 (10.2)

307 (57.8)

Higher education

467 (25.1)

49 (10.5)

250 (53.5)

Parental working status

Father only

1465 (78.8)

111 (7.6)

0.00

0.990

590 (40.3)

19.48

< 0.001

Both parents

395 (21.2)

30 (7.6)

208 (52.7)

Number of siblings

No

26 (1.4)

2 (7.7)

14.67

0.001

13 (50.0)

69.47

< 0.001

1-3

1008 (54.2)

98 (9.7)

519 (51.5)

> 3

826 (44.4)

41 (5.0)

266 (32.2)

Number of persons in child's living room

No

116 (6.2)

10 (8.6)

1.62

0.444

70 (60.3)

51.45

< 0.001

1-3

791 (42.5)

66 (8.3)

392 (49.6)

> 3

953 (51.2)

65 (6.8)

336 (35.3)


Mushtaq et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:130   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-130

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