Table 9

Socio-demographic correlates of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle independently associated with higher BMI and overweight among Pakistani primary school children

Total Sample (n = 1860)

Physical activity > twice a week (n = 988)a

Sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (n = 909)b


Characteristics

n (%)

n (%)

χ2

P value

n (%)

χ2

P value


Gender

Boys

977 (52.5)

538 (55.1)

3.14

0.077

512 (52.4)

10.29

0.001

Girls

883 (47.5)

450 (51.0)

397 (45.0)

Area and socioeconomic status (SES)

Urban, high SES

465 (25.0)

224 (48.2)

36.39

< 0.001

280 (60.2)

60.32

< 0.001

Urban, middle SES

465 (25.0)

229 (49.2)

229 (49.2)

Urban, low SES

465 (25.0)

232 (49.9)

237 (51.0)

Rural, low/disadvantaged SES

465 (25.0)

303 (65.2)

163 (35.1)

Neighborhood income

Low

651 (35.0)

374 (57.5)

8.16

0.017

248 (38.1)

50.83

< 0.001

Middle

910 (48.9)

468 (51.4)

482 (53.0)

High

299 (16.1)

146 (48.8)

179 (59.9)

Parental education

Illiterate

366 (19.7)

212 (57.9)

7.30

0.063

133 (36.3)

62.12

< 0.001

High school

496 (26.7)

273 (55.0)

205 (41.3)

College

531 (28.5)

264 (49.7)

305 (57.4)

Higher education

467 (25.1)

239 (51.2)

266 (57.0)

Parental working status

Father only

1465 (78.8)

785 (53.6)

0.60

0.439

732 (50.0)

3.31

0.069

Both parents

395 (21.2)

203 (51.4)

177 (44.8)

Number of siblings

No

26 (1.4)

15 (57.7)

0.23

0.893

17 (65.4)

46.99

< 0.001

1-3

1008 (54.2)

534 (53.0)

561 (55.7)

> 3

826 (44.4)

439 (53.1)

331 (40.1)

Number of persons in child's living room

No

116 (6.2)

51 (44.0)

4.24

0.120

73 (62.9)

16.96

< 0.001

1-3

791 (42.5)

422 (53.4)

407 (51.5)

> 3

953 (51.2)

515 (54.0)

429 (45.0)


aPhysical activity included running or jogging, cycling, housework or yard work, and sports involving physical movement (see details in methods)

bSedentary lifestyle included television viewing, working on computer and playing video games

Mushtaq et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:130   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-130

Open Data