Table 1

Summary of studies included in this systematic review

Population

GIS measures

AT measure

Author (year) (reference code)

Sample size

Age range (years)/Grade range

sex

Country (locality)

Environmental variables

Operational definition of neighbourhood

Geocode

Modes

Data source

Recall period

Classification

% AST


Babey (2009) [21]

3451

12-17

MF

US (California)

Distance to school; urbanisation

Not reported

Not reported

Walk, bike, or skateboard

b

7 days*

Walking or biking or skateboarding to or from school at least once a week

49.3%

Braza (2004) [20]

34 schools (2993 students)

Grade 5

MF

US (California)

Neighbourhood population density; street connectivity

800-meter radial buffer around school

Street address

Walk, bike, car, bus

b

On the day of data collection

Percent of students walking or biking to school

33%

Bringolf-Isler (2008) [26]

1031

6-7; 9-10; 13-14

MF

Switzerland

Distance to school; length of street segment; altitude between home and school; population density

200-meter buffer around the straight-line between participant's home and school

Not reported

Walk, bike/kick scooter/inline skates, car, bus/tram/train or others

a

Usual travel

Usually walking or biking to and from school both in winter and summer

77.8%

Ewing (2004) [19]

709 trips

Grade K-12

MF

US (Florida)

Commercial floor area ratio, street density, average sidewalk width, proportion of street miles with street trees, proportion of street miles with bike lanes or paved shoulders, proportion of street miles with sidewalks

Not reported

Not reported

Travel diary-school trips-walk, bike, bus

b

--

i)Walking and ii) biking

--

Kerr (2006) [16]

259

5-18

MF

US (Seattle)

Neighbourhood and individual walkability index (residential density, mixed land use, intersection density); neighbourhood income

1-km Euclidean and network buffer around home

Street address

Walk, bike, ride in a car or school bus, public transport to and from school

a

Usual travel

Walking or biking to and from school at least once a week

25.1%

Larsen (2009) [23]

810

11-13

MF

Canada (London)

Street trees; intersection density; sidewalk length; land use mix; distance to school; net dwelling density; net residential density; single parenthood; educational attainment; median household

1-mile radial buffer around school and 500-meter radial buffer around home

Postal code

Walk, bike, scooter, skateboard, rollerblade, school bus, city bus, driven in a car

b

Usual travel

Non-motorized vs. motorized i) to school and ii) from school

62% to school and 72% from school

Lin (2010) [29]

330

Grade 1-6

MF

Taiwan (Taipei)

Residential density; employment density; building density; road density; land use; block size; sidewalk width; sidewalk coverage; intersection number along the route to school; vehicle lane width; shade tree density; slope gradient

Not reported

Not reported

Walk, bus, vanpool, motorcycle, car

b

Unknown

Walking i) to school and ii) from school

About 40% walking i) to and ii) from school

Martin (2007) [22]

7433

9-15

MF

US

Geographic regions; urbanisation

Not reported

Not reported

Walk, bike

a

Usual travel

Walking or biking to school at least once a week

47.9%

McDonald (2007) [18]

614

5-18

MF

US (California)

Dwelling units density; employment density; land use mix; residential index; average block size; intersection density; % each way intersections; % on public assistance; % living below poverty line; % female-headed family; % unemployed; % non-white; % foreign born; % owner-occupied housing; % living in same house 1995

800-meter radial buffer around home

Street address

Walk

a,b

2 days

Walking to school

38% for trip less than 1.6 km and 5% greater than 1.6 km

Mitra (2010) [24]

1548 school trips

11-13

MF

Canada (Greater Toronto Area)

Density of school, urbanisation, Employment to population ratio, median household income

Traffic analysis zone (TAZ)

**

Walk

c

1 day

Walking i) to and ii) from school

--

Mitra (2010) [25]

8009 school trips (4009 to school and 4000 from school)

11-13

MF

Canada (Greater Toronto Area)

Distance to school, work/school-trip density, median household income, intersection density, number of street blocks, distance between central business district and home, ratio of sales/service employment to the population, ratio of manufacturing/trade/office/professional employment to the population

400-meter straight-line buffer around home and school

unknown

Walk

c

1 day

Walking i) to and ii) from school

--

Panter (2010) [27]

2012

9-10

MF

United Kingdom (Norfolk)

Road outside child's home; road density; proportion of primary roads; building density; streetlight density; traffic accidents per km; pavement density; effective walkable area; connected node ratio/connectivity; junction density, land-use mix, socioeconomic deprivation; urbanisation

(around home)

Streetlight density; traffic accidents per km; main/secondary road en route; route directness; percent of route to school within an urban area; land-use mix (along route)

800-meter street network buffer around home and 100-meter buffer around the shortest route to school

Street address

Walk, bike, car, bus, train

b

Usual travel

i) Walking and ii)biking to school

40.0% walking to school and 9.2% biking to school

Schlossberg (2006) [17]

287

Grade 6-8

MF

US (Oregon)

Distance to school; route directness; intersection density; dead-end density; crossing major roads and rail roads

200-meter buffer around the estimated route to school

Street address

Walk, bike, car, carpool, school bus, program van and other

a

Usual travel

i) Walking and ii) biking as primary mode (three days or more a week)

15% to school and 25% from school

Timpero (2006) [28]

912

5-6 and 10-12

MF

Australia (Melbourne)

Distance to school; busy-road barrier; route along busy road; pedestrian route directness; steep incline en route to school; area-level SES

Along the estimated route to school

Street address

walk, bike

a

Usual travel

Never; walking or biking one-four times a week; and five times or more a week

Five times or more a week: 27.2% (5-6 yr); 38.5% (10-12 yr)


a parent-report; b self-report; c proxy report from an adult household member;

*Adolescents who were not in school in the past week, but attended school in the past year, were asked about a typical school week.

**The telephone interviews were stratified by Traffic Analysis Zone and these data were aggregated at the level of Traffic Analysis Zone

Wong et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:39   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-39

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