Table 3

Summary of GIS data sources used

GIS data sources

Network data

Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER)/line street centerline data (US)


City of London Planning Department (Ontario, Canada)


The State Government of Victoria (Australia)


Department of Urban Development of Taipei City (Taiwan)


Bicycle and pedestrian level of service database-County's Geographic Information System (Alachua County, Florida, US)


DMTI CanMap Route Logistics


Commercial data: Ordnance Survey Integrated Transport Network


Aerial images (e.g., Orthophotos, 4-m multispectral satellite imagery (Ikonos), 15-cm resolution [23])

[23] (enhance accuracy)

Field surveys/Audit

[23] (enhance accuracy)

Demographic/land use

Census data (e.g., U.S. Census Bureau/Statistics Canada/Australian Bureau of Statistics, Household Registration Office of Wenshan District (Taiwan), etc)


The Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Association of Bay Area Governments (Alameda, California, US) (land use)


Property appraiser's database (parcel layer in county's GIS) (Alachua County, Florida, US) (land use)


Commercial data: Ordnance Survey Mastermap Address Layer 2 (land use)


Derived land cover data (land use)


House tax database of the Taipei Revenue Service (floor area data)


Department of Transport of Taipei City (employment, vehicle ownership, and travel speed)


Police Department of Taipei City (crime)


Norfolk and Suffolk constabulary (traffic accidents)


Commercial data (e.g., PRIZM database by Claritas [population density-urbanisation])



Local Authority (streetlight data)


Commercial data: Ordnance Survey Mastermap Topography (slope data)


Not reported

[16,26] (network and altitude data not reported) [21]

Wong et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:39   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-39

Open Data