Table 4

Summary of relationships between GIS-measured environmental factors and AST

Individual

Trip

School

Environmental variables

-ve

+ve

Null

-ve

+ve

Null

-ve

+ve

Null


Distance


Distance to school

[17]a,b [18]j [21,23]c,d [26-28]a,b,h,i [29]d,m

[18]k [29]c

[25]c,d

Distance to central business district

[25]c,d,e,f


Density


Residential density

[16,18]k [23]d,e

[18]j [23]c,e,f, [23]d,f [26,29]c,d

[20]

Residential index

[18]j,k

Employment density

[18]j,k [29]c,d

[24]c

[25]c,e,h [25]d,e,f,n

[24]d [25]c,f,n [25]c,d,e,f,o

Building density

[29]d,l

[27]a,b,e [29]c

School density

[24]d

[24]c

Density of school- or work-related trips

[25]c,d,e,f

Vehicle density

[29]d,l

[29]c


Diversity


Mixed land use

[23]c,d,f [29]c,l

[16,18]j,k [23]c,d,e [27]a,b,e,g [29]d

Commercial floor area ratio

[19]a,b


Design-connectivity-intersections


Intersection density

[17]a [29]c,g,m

[16,17]b [18]j,k [23]c,d,e,f [27]a,b,e [29]c,d,e [29]d,g

[25]c,d,e,f

[20]

Percent of each way intersections

[18]j,k

Connected node ratio

[27]a,b,e

Cul-de-sac density

[17]a

[17]b

Design-connectivity-route directness

Route directness

[28]i [27]a,b

[17]a,b [28]h


Design-connectivity-streets


Block/road density

[27]a,b,e

[29]c,d

[25]d,e

[19]a,b [25]c,d,f [25]c,e

Average block size

[29]c,m [29]d,l

[18]j,k

Length of motorway

[26]

Length of main street

[26]

Length of side street

[26]

Proportion of primary roads

[27]a,b,e

Vehicle lane width

[25]c,d


Design-Pedestrian-sidewalk and bike lanes


Sidewalk length

[23]c,d,e,f

Sidewalk width

[29]c,d

[19]a,b

Sidewalk density

[29]c,m

[27]a,b,e [29]d

[19]a

[19]b

Bike lane density

[19]a,b

Street spatial design

Rail roads crossing

[17]a,b,g

Motorway crossing

[26]g

Major roads crossing

[17]a,b,g

Main street crossing

[26]g

Side street crossing

[26]g

Busy road crossing

[28]g,h,i

Busy/main road along the route

[27]a,b

[28]h,i

Main road outside child's home

[27]a,b,e

Proportion of primary roads

[27]a,b,g


Walkability index


Individual walkability index

[16]

Neighbourhood walkability index

[16]

Effective walkable area

[27]a,b,e


Topography


Greenery

[23]c,e

[23]c,f [23]d,e,f [29]c,d

[19]a,b

Steep incline

[28]h [29]d,m

[26,28]i [29]c

Geographic regions

[22]*

Urbanisation

[21,22]

[27]a,b,e,q

[24]c,d


Safety


Density of traffic accidents

[27]a,b,q,e

Streetlight density

[27]a,b,e,g


Demographic-socioeconomic factors (income, employment)


Area-level SES

[28]h,i

Neighbourhood income

[23]d,f

[16]

[23]c,e,f [23]d,e

[25]c,d,e,f

[24]c,d

Socioeconomic deprivation

[27]a,b,e

Percent of residents on public assistance

[18]j,k

Percent of residents living below poverty line

[18]j,k

Percent of residents unemployed

[18]j,k


Demographic-education


Educational attainment at neighbourhood level

[23]c,d,e,f


Demographic-housing


Percent of residents living in owner-occupied housing

[18]j,k

Percent of residents living in the same house since 1995

[18]j,k

Percent of residents living in female headed households

[18]j,k


Demographic-ethnicity


Percent of residents born aboard

[18]j,k

Percent of residents being Black

[18]j,k


Demographic-parenthood


Single parenthood at neighbourhood level

[23]c,d,e,f


Interactions


Neighbourhood walkability × income

[16]

Neighbourhood walkability × parental concern

[16]

Distance to school × community

[26]#

Distance to central business district × block density

[25]c,d,e,##


a walk; b bike; c to school; d from school; e home neighbourhood; f school neighbourhood; g en route; h 5-6 years old; i 10-12 years old; j trip less than 1.6 km; k trip greater than 1.6 km; l dependent travel; m independent travel

n the ratio of manufacturing/trade/office/professional employment to the population; o the ratio of sales/service employment to the population

*In U.S., adolescents living in South region were less likely to actively commute to school than those in Northeast region.

#The strongest relationship between distance between home and school on AST was found in Biel (German-speaking) followed by Biel (French-speaking) and Bern.

##Children living in a neighbourhood with smaller blocks and located far from the central business district were less likely to walk than those living in a place with larger blocks and located closer to the central business district.

Wong et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:39   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-39

Open Data