Table 2

Studies of free-living behaviour reporting percent of participants meeting select step-defined cut points in adults

First Author

Sample Characteristics

Instrument

Monitoring Frame

Steps/day cut points used

% Meeting

Specified Cut point


Tudor-Locke [22]

USA

2004

76 men, 133 women; population-based survey of Sumter County, South Carolina; 18+ years of age

Yamax SW-200, Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

7 days

5,000

9,000

10,000

44% < 5,000

19.6 ≥ 9,000

13.9% ≥ 10,000


Miller [50]

Australia

2004

74 men, 111 women;

workplace employees;

18 to 75 years

Yamax SW 700

7 days

10,000

Men: 24.4%

Women: 34.2%


Behrens [51]

USA

2005

18 men, 18 women;

college students;

23.3 ± 3.1 years

Digi-walker (Model DW-200, Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)

Actigraph 7164, Manufacturing Technology Incorporated, Fort Walton Beach, FL

7 days

10,000

80%


Wyatt [21]

USA

2005

344 men, 386 women; 18+ years of age; Colorado statewide representative sample

Yamax SW-200, Yamasa Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

4 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

33% < 5,000

29% 5,000-7,499

22% 7,500-9,999

9% 10,000-12,500

7% > 12,5000


Behrens [78]

USA

2005

204 men, 237 women;

college students;

20.05 ± 1.82 years

Actigraph 7164, Manufacturing Technology Incorporated, Fort Walton Beach, FL

7 days

10,000

Overall: 67.35%

Men: 69.6%

Women: 65.4%


Hornbuckle [79]

USA

2005

69 women; self-identified African American volunteers; 40-62 years of age

New Lifestyles Digi-Walker SW-200, New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit MO

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

38% < 5,000

46% 5,000-7,499

16% ≥7,500


Bennett [80]

USA

2006

153 men, 280 women;

Multiethnic low-income housing residents;

18 to 70+ years

Yamax SW200

5 days

sedentary index: 5,000;

normative for healthy adults: 7,000-13,000;

normative for healthy older adults: 6,000-8,500

56% < 5,000

24% 7,000-13,000

8% of those 50+ took between 6,000 and 8,500


McCormack [25]

Australia

2006

205 men, 223 women;

state wide community sample;

≥18 years

Yamax Digi-walker SW-700

7 days

10,000

Men: 50.2%

Women: 40.8%


De Cocker [26]

Belgium

2007

598 men, 624 women; random sample from public record office; 25 to 75 years

Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

12.9% < 5000

19.4% 5000-7499

26.2% 7500-9999

21.1% 10,000-12,500

20.5% > 12,5000


De Cocker [81]

Belgium

2008

146 men, 164 women;

healthy adults;

38.7 ± 11.9 years

Yamax Digiwalker SW-200, (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)

7 days

7,500

10,000

12,500

≥7,500: 80.6%

≥10,000: 45%

≥12,500: 39.4%


Mitsui [82]

Japan

2008

62 men,117 women;

recruited through medical check-up at public health center;

48 to 69 years

EM-180, YAMASA, Tokyo, Japan

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

Men

30.6% < 5000

25.8% 5000-7499

17.7% 7500-9999

25.8% ≥10000

Women

28.2% < 5000

35.0% 5000-7499

24.8% 7500-9999

12.0% ≥10000

Payn [74]

USA

2008

25 men, 60 women;

community sample, ambulatory and without cognitive impairment;

45+ years

Yamax Digi Walker SW-200, Yamax USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

29.4% ≤ 5000

43.5% 5001-9999

27.1% ≥ 10,000


McKercher [59]

Australia

2009

766 men, 869 women;

young adults participating in a longitudinal study;

26 to 36 years

Yamax Digiwalker SW-200

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

Men

8.2% < 5,000

29.6% 5,000-7,499

27.7% 7,500-9,999

19.7% 10,000-12,499

14.8% 12,500+

Women

6.7% < 5,000

28.2% 5,000-7,499

33.5% 7,500-9,999

21.1% 10,000-12,499

10.6% 12,500+


Schmidt [30]

Australia

2009

887 men, 906 women; 26 to 36 years

Yamax SW-200

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index

Men

7.8% 0-4,999

27.9% 5,000-7,499

27.3% 7,500-9,999

21.4% 10,000-12,999

15.7% 12,500+

Women

6.2% 0-4,999

27.9% 5,000-7,499

33.2% 7,500-9,999

21.3% 10,000-12,999

11.4% 12,500+


Tudor-Locke [83]

USA

2011

1781 men, 1963 women;

NHANES participants (nationally representative);

20 to 85+ years

ActiGraph AM-7164; censored data to approximate pedometer outputs

7 days

Adult Graduated Step Index with additional sedentary categories

Men

14.1% < 2,500

20.6% 2,500-4,999

24.2% 5,000-7,499

19.3% 7,500-9,999

10.9% 10,000-12,499

10.8% 12,500+

Women

14.1% < 2,500

20.6% 2,500-4,999

24.2% 5,000-7,499

19.3% 7,500-9,999

13.2% 10,000-12,499

10.8% 12,500+


Clemes [84]

UK

2011

44 men

52 women; 18 to 65 years

SW-200 pedometer (New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit, MO)

4 weeks in summer and again in winter

10,000 steps/day

Normal weight

Summer 60% ≥ 10,000

Winter 35%≥ 10,000

Overweight

Summer 43%≥ 10,000

Winter 35%≥ 10,000


Adult Graduated Step Index [11]: 1) < 5,000 steps/day ('sedentary'); 2) 5,000-7,499 steps/day ('low active'); 3) 7,500-9,999 steps/day ('somewhat active'); 4) ≥10,000-12,499 steps/day ('active'); and 5) ≥12,500 steps/day ('highly active'). These categories were reinforced in an updated review in 2008 [12] and in 2009 the original 'sedentary' level was segmented into two additional levels: < 2,500 steps/day ('basal activity') and 2,500 to 4,999 steps/day ('limited activity') [3].

Tudor-Locke et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:79   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-79

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