Table 3

Pedometer - based physical activity intervention studies with special populations

Reference

Sample

Intervention duration; study duration and design

Instrument

Intervention Group

Baseline Steps/day

Intervention Group

Immediately Post-Intervention Steps/day

Delta

Steps/day

Cohen's D


Cancer


Wilson [98] 2005

USA

Adult breast cancer survivors; 22 intervention participants

8-week intervention;

8-week quasi-experimental

NR

4,791

8,297

3,506

N/A


Pinto [32,33]

2005, 2009

USA

Adult breast cancer survivors; 43 intervention participants

12-week intervention; 9-month randomized controlled trial

Intervention: pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker)

Assessment: accelerometer (Caltrac, Muscle Dynamics, Torrance, CA)

4,471.7 ± 5,196.1

14,571.5 ± 9,489.5

10,100

1.38


Vallance [99]

2007

Canada

Adult breast cancer survivors; 94 print materials, 94 pedometer only, 93 pedometer with print materials, 96 standard recommendation

3-month intervention; 6-month randomized controlled trial

Digi-Walker SW-200 PED (New Lifestyles Inc., Lee's Summit, MO)

8,476 ± 3,248 (Pedometer only)

7,993 ± 3,559 (Pedometer with print materials)

8,420 ± 5,226 (Pedometer only)

7,783 ± 3,048 (Pedometer with print materials)

-210

-0.06


Irwin [100]

2008

USA

Adults with early stage breast cancer; 37 intervention participants

6-month intervention; 6-month randomized controlled trial

NR

5,083 ± 2,313

(based on n = 37)

6,738 ± 2,958

(based on n = 34)

1,655

0.63


Pinto [34]

2008

USA

Breast cancer survivors; 25 intervention participants

12-week intervention; 24-week quasi-experimental

Intervention: pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker)

Assessment: accelerometer (Biotrainer-Pro, Individual Monitoring Systems, Baltimore, MD)

No pre-intervention steps data reported but week one mean steps/day = 515.8 ± 470.8

1,695.4 ± 1,221.3

1,180

1.39


Matthews [35]

2007

USA

Breast cancer survivors; 13 intervention participants

12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial

Intervention: pedometer (Brand NR)

Assessment: Manufacturing Technology Actigraph (MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA)

7,409.4 ± 2,791.1

8,561.8 ± 2887.3

1,152

0.41


Blaauwbroek [101]

2009

The Netherlands

Adult survivors of childhood cancer; 38 intervention participants

10-week intervention; 36-week quasi-experimental

Yamax digiwalker SW-200

7,653 ± 3,272

11,803 ± 3,483

4,150

1.23


Mustian [28]

2009

USA

Mixed cancer type patients receiving radiation; 19 intervention participants

4-week intervention; 3-month randomized controlled trial

NR

7,222 ± 2,691

11,200 ± 5,851

3,978

0.93


Swenson [30]

2010

USA

Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy; 36 intervention participants (subsample of larger randomized trial)

12- month intervention; 12-month quasi-experimental study conducted within a larger randomized trial

Walk 4 Life LS2500 (Walk 4 Life, Inc.)

No pre-intervention steps data reported but week one mean steps/day = 7,453 ± 2,519

9,429 ± 3,488

1,976

0.66


Unweighted mean

2,743

0.73


Weighted mean

2,139

0.51


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


De Blok [102]

2006

The Netherlands

Adults with COPD; 8 intervention participants

9-week intervention; 9 week randomized controlled trial

Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 (Tokyo, Japan)

2,140

3,927

1,787

N/A


Hopses [103]

2009

The Netherlands

Adults with COPD; 18 intervention participants

12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial

Digiwalker SW-2000 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)

7,087 ± 4,058

7,872 ± 3,962

785

0.20


Nguyen [36]

2009

USA

Adults with COPD; 8 self-monitored (SM), 9 coached (C)

6-month intervention; 6-month randomized comparative trial of cell-phone supported pedometer programs

Intervention: Omron HJ-112 (Omron Healthcare, Bannockburn, IL, USA)

Assessment: Stepwatch 3 Activity Monitor (SAM; OrthoCare Innovations, Washington, DC, USA)

SM:

5,229 ± 3,021*

C:

6,692 ± 3,021*

SM:

5,838 ± 3,100*

C:

5,675 ± 3,021*

SM:

609

C:

-1,017

SM: 0.02

C:

-0.34


Unweighted mean

541

0.02


Weighted mean

562

0.06


Coronary heart disease and related disorders


VanWormer [104]

2004

USA

Adults with coronary artery disease; 22 intervention participants

17-week intervention; 17-week quasi-experimental

NR

6,520.10 ± 2,926.99

8,210.24 ± 2,534.91

1,690

0.62


Izawa

[105] 2005

Japan

Adult myocardial infarction patients completing 6 months of cardiac rehabilitation;

24 intervention participants

6-month intervention; 12-month randomized controlled trial

Kenz Lifecorder, (Suzuken, Nagoya, Japan)

6,564.9 ± 1,114.6

10,458.7 ± 3,310.1

3,894

1.76


Unweighted mean

2,792

1.29


Weighted mean

2,840

1.21


Diabetes and related disorders


Tudor-Locke [29]

2001

Canada

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 9 intervention participants

4-week intervention; 4-week quasi-experimental

Yamax Digiwalker SW-200

6,342 ± 2,244

10,115 ± 3,407

3,773

1.34


Tudor-Locke [106]

2004

Canada

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 24 intervention participants

16-week intervention; 24-week randomized controlled trial

Yamax SW-200, (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)

5,754 ± 2,457

9,123 ± 4,539

3,369

0.96


Araiza [107]

2006

USA

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 15 intervention participants

6-week intervention; 6-week; randomized controlled trial

Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 (New Lifestyles, Kansas City, MI)

7,220 ± 2792

10,410 ± 4,162

3,190

0.92


Engel [108]

2006

Australia

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 30 coaching intervention, 24 pedometer intervention

6-month intervention; 6-month randomized comparative trial

Yamax Digi-Walker-700

NR

averaged 7,296 ± 2,066 during intervention

N/A

N/A


Richardson [109]

2007

USA

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 17 lifestyle goals, 13 structured goals

6-week intervention;

6-week comparative trial of two types of pedometer goal-setting strategies

Omron HJ-720IT (beta test version)

Lifestyles goals:

4,157 ± 1,737

Structured goals:

6,279 ± 3,306

Lifestyles goals:

5,171 ± 1,769

Structured goals:

6,868 ± 3,751

Lifestyles goals:

1,014

Structured goals:

589

Lifestyles goals:

0.58

Structured goals:

0.17


Bjorgaas [110]

2008

Norway

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 19 intervention participants

6-month intervention;

6-month randomized controlled trial

Yamax Dig-Walker ML AW-320, Yamax Corp, Tokyo, Japan

7,628 ± 3,715

8,022 ± 3,368

394

0.11


LeMaster [31]

2008

USA

Adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy; 41 intervention participants

12-month intervention;

12-month randomized controlled trial

Intervention: Accusplit Eagle 170 (Pleasanton, CA)

Assessment: Stepwatch 3 (Orthocare Innovations, Washington, DC)

3,335 ± 1,575*

3,183 ± 1,537*

-152

-0.10


Cheong [111]

2009

Canada

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 19 pedometer-only intervention (P); 19 pedometer and low glycemic index food intake intervention (PGI)

16-week intervention; 16-week randomized comparative trial

NR

P:

5,721 ± 2,232*

PGI:

5,251 ± 1,944*

P:

8,527 ± 3,374*

PGI:

9,381 ± 5,187*

P:

2,806

PGI:

4,130

P:

1.00

PGI:

1.16


Johnson [112]

2009

Canada

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 21 Enhanced program, 17 Basic program

12-week randomized comparative evaluation of two types of pedometer programs

Digi-Walker SW-200, (Yamax, Kyoto, Japan)

All participants:

8,948 ± 3,288

All participants:

10,485 ± 4,264**

1,685

0.44


Kirk [113]

2009

U.K.

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 42 in-person intervention (IP),

40 written form intervention (WF)

6-month intervention; 12-month randomized controlled trial

ActiGraph GT1M (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA)

IP:

6,600 ± 2,700

WF:

5,500 ± 2,300

IP:

6,500 ± 2,300

WF:

5,300 ± 2,300

IP:

-100

WF:

-200

IP:

-0.04

WF:

-0.09


Newton [114]

2009

New Zealand

Adolescents with type 1 diabetes; 34 intervention participants

12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial

NR

Median 11,242

Median 10,159

N/A

N/A


Tudor-Locke [115]

2009

Canada

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 157 professional-led (PRO), 63 peer-led (PEER) participants

16-week intervention; 16-week quasi-experimental comparison of program delivery

Yamax SW-200, (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)

PRO: 3,980 ± 2,189

PEER:

4,396 ± 2,045

PRO:

7,976 ± 4,118

PEER:

8,612 ± 3,202

PRO:

3,996

PEER:

4,216

PRO:

1.27

PEER:

1.61


Vincent [116]

2009

USA

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 9 intervention participants

8-week intervention; 8-week randomized controlled trial

NR

4,175

7,238

3,063

N/A


De Greef [72]

2010

Belgium

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 20 intervention participants

12-week intervention, 12-week randomized controlled trial

Yamax DigiWalker SW200

7,099 ± 4,208

8,024 ± 5,331

925

0.19


Diedrich [117]

2010

USA

Adults with type 2 diabetes; 11 intervention participants

3-month intervention; 3-month quasi-experiment

Yamax Digiwalker SW-200

4,145 ± 2,929***

6,486 ± 2,766***

2,341

0.82


Unweighted mean

2,061

0.65


Weighted mean

2,405

0.78


Joint or muscle disorders


Talbot [118]

2003

USA

Adults with knee osteoarthritis; 17 walking plus education program

12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial of a self-management education program with and without walking program

New Lifestyles Digi-walker SW-200 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)

3,519 ± 2,603

4,337 ± 2,903

818

0.30


Kilmer [119]

2005

USA

Adults with neuromuscular disease; 20 intervention participants

6-month intervention; 6-month quasi-experimental home-based activity and dietary intervention

NR

≅ 4,600 (from figure)

≅ 5,900 (from figure)

N/A

N/A


Fontaine [120]

2007

USA

Adults with fibromyalgia syndrome; 14 intervention particpants

12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial

Accusplit Eagle Activity Pedometer (San Jose, CA)

2,337 ± 1,598*

3,970 ± 2,238*

1,633

0.85


Unweighted mean

1,226

0.57


Weighted mean

1,186

0.55


Note: Values are means ± SD unless otherwise stated, personal communication with Fontaine [120] clarified that what was reported in the published manuscript was actually SE; COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; *SD calculated from reported SE; * post-test data obtained directly from corresponding author; ***reported as steps/week in original article, divided by 7 days here.

Tudor-Locke et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:80   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-80

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