Table 3

Reliability results of new PAQs
Age Group Reference Test-retest period PAQ Variables tested Reliability results
Correlation coefficients Agreement
Youth Dwyer (2011)[19] 1 - 2 weeks Pre-PAQ

Level 5 min/day(Q1) – level 5

min/day(Q2)

ICC = 0.64
Level 4 min/day(Q1) – level 4 min/day(Q2) ICC = 0.44
Level 3 min/day(Q1) – level 3 min/day(Q2) ICC = 0.53
Levels 1–2 min/day(Q1) – levels 1–2 min/day(Q2) ICC = 0.44
Youth Economos (2010)[20] 1 - 2 hours BONES PAS High METs(Q1) – high METs(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.57 (0.32;0.75), P < 0.001
Moderate-high METs(Q1) – moderate-high METs(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.74 (0.56;0.85), P < 0.001
WBF score(Q1) – WBF score(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.71 (0.51;0.83), P < 0.001
Youth Martinez-Gomez (2010)[21] 1 hour RPAR Total MET-min(Q1) – total MET-min(Q2) ICC = 0.87
Youth Philippaerts (2006)[22] 9 days FPACQ Total hr/week(Q1) – total hr/week(Q2) ICC = 0.68 κ = 0.50
Total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC = 0.80 κ = 0.53
Inactivity(Q1) – inactivity(Q2) ICC = 0.83 κ = 0.61
Youth Ridley (2001)[23] 7 days CDPAQ Total METs(Q1) – total METs(Q2) ICC = 0.98 (P < 0.05)
Total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) ICC = 0.91 (P < 0.05)
CDPAQ-HC Total METs(Q1) – total METs(Q2) ICC = 0.98 (P < 0.05)
Total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) ICC = 0.96 (P < 0.05)
Youth Ridley (2006)[24] Within 24 hours MARCA PAL(Q1) – PAL(Q2) ICC = 0.93 95 % LoA = −0.30 – 0.30
Youth Telford (2004)[25] > 14 days CLASS-parental report 5-6 yrs: frequency(Q1) – frequency(Q2) ICC = 0.83 (P < 0.001)
10-12 yrs: frequency(Q1) – frequency(Q2) ICC = 0.69 (P < 0.001)
5-6 yrs: duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) ICC = 0.76 (P < 0.001)
10-12 yrs: duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) ICC = 0.74 (P < 0.001)
CLASS-self 10-12 yrs: frequency(Q1) – frequency(Q2) ICC = 0.36 (P < 0.01)
10-12 yrs: duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) ICC = 0.24
Youth Treuth (2003)[26] 4 days GAQ Yesterday: GAQ score(Q1) – GAQ score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.7833 (P < 0.0001)
Usual: GAQ score(Q1) – GAQ score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.8187 (P < 0.0001)
Yesterday: TV watching(Q1) – TV watching(Q2) Pearson r = 0.3454 (P = 0.0043)
Usual: TV watching(Q1) – TV watching(Q2) Pearson r = 0.3827 (P = 0.0015)
Yesterday: other sedentary(Q1) – other sedentary(Q2) Pearson r = 0.4695 (P < 0.0001)
Usual: other sedentary(Q1) – other sedentary(Q2) Pearson r = 0.4837 (P < 0.0001)
3 days Activitygram Activitygram score(Q1) – activitygram score(Q2) ICC = 0.24 (P = 0.005)
Youth Treuth (2005)[27] 6 days Fels PAQ Girls: Fels PAQ score(Q1) – Fels PAQ score(Q2) ICC = 0.67
Boys: Fels PAQ score(Q1) – Fels PAQ score(Q2) ICC = 0.65
Youth Welk (2007)[28] 7 days YMCLS Total activity(Q1) – total activity(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.60 (0.47;0.70)
Youth Wong (2006)[29] 7 days SHAPES Combined activity(Q1) – combined activity(Q2) κ (±SD) = 0.58 ± 0.17
Sedentary activity(Q1) – sedentary activity(Q2) κ (±SD) = 0.55 ± 0.01
Adults Ainsworth (2000)[30] 1 month KPAS 3-point summary index(Q1) – 3-point summary index(Q2) ICC = 0.82 (P < 0.0001)
4-point summary index(Q1) – 4-point summary index(Q2) ICC = 0.83 (P < 0.0001)
Adults Besson (2010)[31] ± 2 weeks RPAQ PAEE(Q1) – PAEE(Q2) ICC = 0.76 (P < 0.001)
Sedentary time(Q1) – sedentary time(Q2) ICC = 0.76 (P < 0.001)
Adults Chasan-Taber (2004)[32] 7 days PPAQ Total activity(Q1) – total activity(Q2) ICC = 0.78
Sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) ICC = 0.79
Adults Chinapaw (2009)[33] 2 weeks AQuAA Adolescents: AQuAA score(Q1) – AQuAA score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.16;0.65)
Adults: AQuAA score(Q1) – AQuAA score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.22 (−0.04;0.46)
Adolescents: sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.57 (0.34;0.73)
Adults: sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.60 (0.40;0.74)
Adults Craig (2003)[34] 3 - 7 days IPAQ Long form: total PA(Q1) – total PA(Q2) Pooled Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.81 (0.79;0.82), range: 0.46 - 0.96
Short form: total PA(Q1) – total PA(Q2) Pooled Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.76 (0.73;0.77), range: 0.32 - 0.88
Adults Fjeldsoe (2009)[35] 7 days AWAS Total activity(Q1) – total activity(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.73 (0.51;0.86)
HEPA(Q1) – HEPA(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.80 (0.65;0.89)
Sitting(Q1) – sitting(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.42 (0.13;0.64)
Adults Friedenreich (2006)[36] 9 weeks (average) PYTPAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.66 (0.56;0.74), Spearman r = 0.64 (P < 0.0001)
Adults Kurtze (2007)[37] 7 days HUNT2 Hard activity(Q1) – hard activity(Q2) Spearman r = 0.17 (P < 0.01) κ = 0.41 (0.29;0.54)
Occupational activity(Q1) – occupational activity(Q2) Spearman r = 0.85 (P < 0.01) κ = 0.80 (0.71;0.89)
Light activity(Q1) – light activity(Q2) Spearman r = 0.17 κ = 0.20 (0.04;0.35)
Adults Kurtze (2008)[38] 7 days HUNT1 Frequency(Q1) – frequency(Q2) Spearman r = 0.87 (P < 0.01) κ = 0.80
Intensity(Q1) – intensity(Q2) Spearman r = 0.87 (P < 0.01) κ = 0.82
Duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) Spearman r = 0.76 (P < 0.01) κ = 0.69
Adults Lowther (1999)[39] 2 days SPAQ Total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Pearson r = 0.998 (P < 0.01), repeatability coefficient R = 53 min. MD (95 % LoA) = 3.09 ± 26.5 min
Adults Mäder (2006)[40] 14 - 21 days SHS97 Sweat episodes(Q1) – sweat episodes(Q2) Spearman r = 0.63 (P < 0.05)
HEPA99 Active/inactive(Q1) – active/inactive(Q2) κ = 0.46 (P < 005)
IPAQ Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.54 (P < 0.05)
Sitting(Q1) – sitting(Q2) Spearman r = 0.60 (P < 0.05)
OIMQ Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.68 (P < 0.05)
Adults Meriwether (2006)[41] 7 days PAAT Total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Spearman r = 0.618 (P < 0.001)
Adults Reis (2005)[42] 2 weeks OPAQ Total activity(Q1) – total activity(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.76 (0.59;0.86)
Sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.78 (0.62;0.87)
Adults Rosenberg (2010)[43] 2 weeks SBQ Weekday: total score(Q1) – total score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.85 (0.75;0.91), Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.79 (0.65;0.88)
Weekend day: total score(Q1) – total score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.77 (0.63;0.86), Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.74 (0.58;0.85)
Adults Sobngwi (2001)[44] 10 - 15 days SSAAQ Total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Spearman r = 0.95 (P < 0.001)
Adults Timperio (2003)[45] 3 days 1WPAR Men: duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.45 (0.20;0.64), P < 0.001
Women: duration(Q1) – duration(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.80 (0.69;0.87), P < 0.001
Men: sufficient PA(Q1) – sufficient PA(Q2) κ = 0.64 (P < 0.001)
Women: sufficient PA(Q1) – sufficient PA(Q2) κ = 0.55 (P < 0.001)
Adults Wareham (2002)[46] 3 months EPAQ2 Men: total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) Pearson r = 0.74 (P < 0.05) κ = 0.64
Women: total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) Pearson r = 0.72 (P < 0.05) κ = 0.70
Men: TV time(Q1) – TV time(Q2) Pearson r = 0.75 (P < 0.05) κ = 0.71
Women: TV time(Q1) – TV time(Q2) Pearson r = 0.78 (P < 0.05) κ = 0.74
Adults Wareham (2003)[47] 18 - 21 months EPAQ Physical activity index(Q1) – physical activity index(Q2) κ = 0.60 (P < 0.0001)
Adults Yore (2007)[48] 1 - 5 days BRFSS PAQ VPA(Q1) – VPA(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.86 (0.72;0.99)
MPA(Q1) – MPA(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.53 (0.31;0.75)
Recommended PA(Q1) – recommended PA(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.84 (0.69;0.99)
Walking(Q1) – walking(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.56 (0.34;0.77)
Strengthening PA(Q1) – strengthening PA(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.92 (0.81;1.00)
10 - 19 days BRFSS PAQ VPA(Q1) – VPA(Q3) κ (95 % CI) = 0.80 (0.65;0.95)
MPA(Q1) – MPA(Q3) κ (95 % CI) = 0.35 (0.11;0.59)
Recommended PA(Q1) – recommended PA(Q3) κ (95 % CI) = 0.67 (0.46;0.88)
Walking(Q1) – walking(Q3) κ (95 % CI) = 0.34 (0.10;0.57)
Strengthening PA(Q1) – strengthening PA(Q3) κ (95 % CI) = 0.85 (0.71;0.99)
Elderly Yasunaga (2007)[49] 1 month PAQ-EJ PAQ-EJ score(Q1) – PAQ-EJ score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.70 (P < 0.05)
Median ICC = 0.76 (youth: 0.69, adults: 0.765, elderly: –)
Median Spearman r = 0.74 (youth: 0.71, adults: 0.75, elderly: –)
Median Pearson r = 0.76 (youth: 0.80, adults: 0.74, elderly: 0.70)
Median κ = 0.64 (youth: 0.53, adults: 0.655, elderly: –)

Q1 =first completed questionnaire, Q2 = second completed questionnaire, Q3 = third completed questionnaire, r = correlation coefficient (rho), ICC = Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, CI = Confidence Interval (lower;upper), %CV = coefficient of variation (within subjects standard deviation of typical error) as a percentage of the mean score, κ = kappa (i.e. Cohen weighted kappa unless specified otherwise), LoA = Limits of Agreement, MD = Mean Difference, – = not stated.

NB: No calculation of weighted kappa is specified in the papers. Usually the kappa statistic is used for categorical responses and weighted kappa for ordinal responses. Interpretation of values of kappa and weighted kappa were usually based on the classification system developed by Landis and Koch (1977), where <0.10 indicated poor agreement, 0.10-0.20 slight agreement, 0.21-0.40 fair agreement, 0.41-0.60 moderate agreement, 0.61-0.80 substantial agreement, 0.81-1.00 almost perfect agreement.

Ainsworth (2000): 3 point summary index = 3 domains: sports/exercise, occupation, active living habits. 4 point summary index = all 4 domains: sports/exercise, occupation, active living habits, housework/caregiving.

Chinapaw (2009): AQuAA score: all activities above 2 MET in MET-min/week.

Craig (2003): Pooled Spearman = pooled results from data of 22 studies examining the IPAQ long form and 23 studies examining the short form.

Dwyer (2011): Levels 1–2 = stationary, level 3 = moving slowly, level 4 = moving at a medium or moderate pace, level 5 = moving at a fast pace.

Economos (2010): Moderate-high METs = 3–6 METs. High METs = ≥6 METs. WBF score = weight-bearing factor score, calculated by adding the weight-bearing factor of the reported weight-bearing activities.

Fjeldsoe (2009): HEPA = Health Enhancing Physical Activity: brisk walking and moderate- and vigorous activities from the planned activity and transport domains.

Kurtze (2007): Light activity = no sweating or being out of breath. Hard activity = sweating/out of breath.

Lowther (1999): Total min = total minutes measured in the overlapping 4 days of both questionnaires. Repeatability coefficient (twice the standard deviation of the differences) means that 95 % of the differences in SPAQ from one measurement to the next (under similar conditions) would be between zero plus or minus 53 minutes.

Mäder (2006): IPAQ - Total MET-min/week = MET-min/week for total activity excluding sitting. OIMQ - Total MET-min/week = MET-min/week for total activity, i.e. moderate and vigorous activities.

Philippaerts (2006): Total hrs/week = Total hours per week spent in transport and sports participation, excluding sedentary activities. Total EE = Total EE spent in transport and sports participation, excluding sedentary activities.

Reis (2005): Sedentary = sitting or standing activities.

Ridley (2001): CDPAQ-HC = hard copy of CDPAQ.

Rosenberg (2010): Total score = all sedentary behaviors in hours per day for each item were summed separately for weekday and weekend days.

Telford (2004): Reliability results for frequency/duration of overall total PA for 5 to 6 or 10 to 12 year old children in parental proxy-reports or self-administered questionnaires.

Timperio (2003): Duration = duration of total physical activity. Sufficient PA was calculated as 150 minutes of combined walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, with reported duration of vigorous-intensity physical activity weighted by two.

Treuth (2003): GAQ score = MET weighted mean score of 28 activities. Activitygram score = average intensity/min. Other sedentary = sedentary activities excluding TV watching.

Treuth (2005): Fels PAQ score = total activity score; MET weighted sum of sport, leisure, work index.

Wareham (2003): Physical activity index is a four-category index of inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active. TV time = hours per week watching television and videos.

Wong (2006): Combined activity = combined score of the SHAPES derived variables which contains the variables: VPA, MPA, MVPA, screen time, PAL and BMI.

Yasunaga (2007): PAQ-EJ score (MET-hr/week) = number of days*time*intensity weight.

Yore (2007): MPA ≥ 30 min/day on 5 days/week. VPA ≥ 20 min/day on 3 days/week. Recommended PA, i.e. ≥ subjects who met the criteria for moderate or vigorous PA. Walking ≥ 30 min/day. Strengthening PA = any muscle-strengthening activity on ≥ 2 days/week. Kappa's are reported for the subsamples who met the criteria for the physical activity intensities.

Helmerhorst et al.

Helmerhorst et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 9:103   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-103

Open Data