Table 4 |
||||||||
Validity results of new PAQs | ||||||||
Age Group | Reference | Criterion method | Duration of validation | PAQ | Variables tested | Criterion intensity thresholds | Validity results | |
Correlation coefficients | Agreement | |||||||
Youth | Dwyer (2011)[19] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 4 - 5 days | Pre-PAQ | Level 5 min/day(Q) – VPA min/day(Acc) | >5016 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.17 | MD (95 % LoA) = 1.9 ± 39.4 min/day |
Level 4 min/day(Q) – MPA min/day(Acc) | 3560-5016 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.13 | MD (95 % LoA) = 48.2 ± 73.1 min/day | |||||
Level 3 min/day(Q) – LPA min/day(Acc) | 1592-3560 counts/min | Pearson r = −0.07 | MD (95 % LoA) = −4.8 ± 100.7 min/day | |||||
Levels 1–2 min/day(Q) – sedentary min/day(Acc) | <1592 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.19 | MD (95 % LoA) = −235.4 ± 147.7 min/day | |||||
Youth | Economos (2010)[20] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 2 days | BONES PAS | High METs(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.25 (−0.07;0.52) | – |
High METs(Q) – VPA(Acc) | 6-9 METs, 1952–5724 counts/min | Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.23 (−0.09;0.51) | – | |||||
Moderate-high METs(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.27 (−0.05;0.54) | – | |||||
Youth | Martinez-Gomez (2010)[21] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 1 day | RPAR | Total MET-min(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.42 (P = 0.021) | κ = 0.16 |
MVPA min(Q) – MVPA counts(Acc) | ≥2000 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.52 (P < 0.001) | MD (95 % LoA) = 2.15 ± 7.19 min | |||||
Acc (Biotrainer) | 1 day | Total MET-min(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.40 (P = 0.025) | κ = 0.39 | |||
Total MET-min(Q) – total counts/mov(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.54 (P = 0.004) | κ = 0.16 | |||||
Youth | Philippaerts (2006)[22] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | FPACQ | Total hr/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.56 (P < 0.01) | – |
Total hr/week(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.43 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
TEE(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.58 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
TEE(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.49 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Inactivity(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = −0.13 | – | |||||
Inactivity(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = −0.06 | – | |||||
Youth | Ridley (2001)[23] | Acc (Caltrac) | 2x 1 day | CDPAQ | Total METs(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.41 (P < 0.05) | – |
Total compendium METs(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.54 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Total mins(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.41 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
HR (Polar) | 2x 1 day | MVPA mins(Q) – MVPA mins(HR) | ≥145 bpm | Pearson r = 0.66 (P = 0.01) | – | |||
Acc (Caltrac) | 2x 1 day | CDPAQ-HC | Total METs(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.25 (P < 0.05) | – | ||
Total compendium METs(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.22 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Total mins(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.33 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
HR (Polar) | 2x 1 day | MVPA mins(Q) – MVPA mins(HR) | ≥145 bpm | Pearson r = 0.48 (P = 0.05) | – | |||
Youth | Ridley (2006)[24] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 1 day | MARCA | PAL(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.45 (P < 0.01) | – |
Youth | Telford (2004)[25] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 8 days | CLASS-parental report | 5-6 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = −0.04 | MD (95 % LoA) = −140.7 (−164.9;-116.6) min/day |
10-12 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.09 | MD (95 % LoA) = 11.2 (−6.9;29.4) min/day | |||||
5-6 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total raw counts/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.05 | – | |||||
10-12 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total raw counts/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.11 | – | |||||
CLASS-self | 10-12 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = −0.04 | MD (95 % LoA) = 1.5 (−17.2;20.3) min/day | ||||
10-12 yrs: total min/day(Q) – total raw counts/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.06 | – | |||||
Youth | Treuth (2003)[26] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 4 days | GAQ | Yesterday: GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.27 (P < 0.05) | – |
Usual: GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.29 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Yesterday: TV watching(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = −0.145 (P = 0.24) | – | |||||
Usual: TV watching(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = −0.004 (P = 0.98) | – | |||||
Yesterday: other sedentary(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.0227 (P = 0.85) | – | |||||
Usual: other sedentary(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = −0.0916 (P = 0.46) | – | |||||
Activitygram | Activitygram score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Pearson r = 0.37 (P < 0.002) | – | ||||
Youth | Treuth (2005)[27] | Acc (Actiwatch) | 6 days | Fels PAQ | Elementary: Fels PAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.34 (P = 0.004) | – |
Middle: Fels PAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.11 (P = 0.31) | – | |||||
High: Fels PAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.21 (P = 0.006) | – | |||||
Youth | Welk (2007)[28] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | YMCLS | Weekly PA bouts(Q) – weekly PA bouts(Acc) | – | r = 0.24 (P < 0.05) | MD (95 % LoA) = −8.4 ± 28.4 min |
Previous day: total MVPA mins(Q) – total MVPA mins(Acc) | 3-6 METs | r = 0.53 (P < 0.05) | MD (95 % LoA) = 14.5 ± 173.9 min | |||||
Youth | Wong (2006)[29] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 - 9 days | SHAPES | VPA min/day(Q) – VPA min/day(Acc) | ≥8200 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.25 (P = 0.07) | – |
MVPA min/day(Q) – MVPA min/day(Acc) | ≥3200 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.44 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
MPA min/day(Q) – MPA min/day(Acc) | 3200-8199 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.31 (P = 0.02) | – | |||||
Adults | Ainsworth (2000)[30] | Acc (Caltrac) | 2x 7 days | KPAS | 3 point summary index(Q) – MET-min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.53 (P < 0.01) | – |
4 point summary index(Q) – MET-min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
Adults | Besson (2010)[31] | DLW | 14 days | RPAQ | TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) | – | Spearman r = 0.67 (P < 0.0001) | MD (95 % LoA) = −3451.9 ± 2025.1 kJ/day (P < 0.05) |
PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) | – | Spearman r = 0.39 (P = 0.0004) | MD (95 % LoA) = −12.9 ± 23.9 kJ/day (P < 0.05) | |||||
Acc + HR (Actiheart) | 11 days | VPA(Q) – VPA(Acc + HR) | >6 METs | Spearman r = 0.70 (P < 0.0001) | MD (95 % LoA) = 0.2 ± 0.4 h/day | |||
MPA(Q) – MPA(Acc + HR) | 3.6-6 METs | – | MD (95 % LoA) = −0.8 ± 1.0 h/day | |||||
Light PA(Q) – light PA(Acc + HR) | 2-3.5 METs | – | MD (95 % LoA) = −0.1 ± 2.4 h/day | |||||
Sedentary time(Q) – sedentary time(Acc + HR) | <2 METs | Spearman r = 0.27 (P = 0.06) | MD (95 % LoA) = 0.7 ± 2.8 h/day | |||||
Adults | Chasan-Taber (2004)[32] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | PPAQ | Total activity(Q) – Swartz cut point min/day(Acc) | ≥3 METs, ≥574 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.32 | – |
Total activity(Q) – Hendelman cut point min/day(Acc) | ≥3 METs, ≥191 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.43 | – | |||||
Total activity(Q) – Freedson cut point min/day(Acc) | ≥3 METs, ≥1952 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.08 | – | |||||
Total activity(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.27 | – | |||||
Sedentary(Q) – Swartz cut point min/day(Acc) | <1.5 METs | Spearman r = −0.17 | – | |||||
Sedentary(Q) – Hendelman cut point min/day(Acc) | <1.5 METs | Spearman r = −0.34 | – | |||||
Sedentary(Q) – Freedson cut point min/day(Acc) | <1.5 METs | Spearman r = 0.12 | – | |||||
Sedentary(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = −0.10 | – | |||||
Adults | Chinapaw (2009)[33] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 14 days | AQuAA | Adolescents: AQuAA score(Q) – counts/min(Acc) | ≥ 2 METs, ≥699 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.13 | – |
Adults: AQuAA score(Q) – counts/min(Acc) | ≥ 2 METs, ≥699 counts/min | Spearman r = −0.16 | – | |||||
Adolescents: sedentary(Q) – counts/min(Acc) | < 2 METs, <699 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.23 | – | |||||
Adults: sedentary(Q) – counts/min(Acc) | < 2 METs, <699 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.15 | – | |||||
Adults | Craig (2003)[34] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | IPAQ | Long form: total PA(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pooled Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.33 (0.26;0.39), range: -0.27 - 0.61 | – |
Short form: total PA(Q) – total counts(Acc) | – | Pooled Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.30 (0.23;0.36), range: -0.12 - 0.57 | – | |||||
Adults | Fjeldsoe (2009)[35] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | AWAS | Total activity(Q) – total activity(Acc) | ≥100 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.13 (P = 0.24) | – |
HEPA(Q) – Freedson cut point min/week(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.28 (P = 0.01) | – | |||||
HEPA(Q) – Swartz cut point min/week(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.06 (P = 0.64) | – | |||||
Sitting(Q) – sitting(Acc) | <100 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.32 (P = 0.006) | – | |||||
Adults | Friedenreich (2006)[36] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 4x 7 days | PYTPAQ | Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.26 (P < 0.05), ICC (95 % CI) = 0.18 (0.03;0.32) | – |
Adults | Kurtze (2007)[37] | Acc (ActiReg) | 7 days | HUNT2 | Hard activity(Q) – EE(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.11 | – |
Hard activity(Q) – PAL(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.16 | – | |||||
Light activity(Q) – EE(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.21 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Light activity(Q) – PAL(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.08 | – | |||||
Occupational activity(Q) – EE(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.39 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
Occupational activity(Q) – PAL(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.38 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
Adults | Kurtze (2008)[38] | Acc (ActiReg) | 7 days | HUNT1 | Summary index(Q) – EE(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.03 | – |
Summary index(Q) – PAL(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.07 | – | |||||
Summary index(Q) – MET-min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.07 | – | |||||
Adults | Lowther (1999)[39] | Acc (Caltrac) | 4 days | SPAQ | Total mins(Q) – total kcal(Acc) | – | r = 0.1294, corrected for confounding: r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) | – |
Adults | Mäder (2006)[40] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | SHS97 | Sweat episodes/week(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.23 | – |
HEPA99 | – | – | – | – | ||||
IPAQ | Total MET-min/week(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.39 (P < 0.05) | – | ||||
Sitting(Q) – sitting(Acc) | <100 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.22 | – | |||||
OIMQ | Total MET-min/week(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.44 (P < 0.05) | – | ||||
Adults | Meriwether (2006)[41] | Acc (MTI) | 14 days | PAAT | VPA min/week(Q) – VPA min/week(Acc) | ≥5 METs, ≥5725 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.380 (P < 0.01) | – |
MVPA min/week(Q) – MVPA min/week(Acc) | ≥5 METs, ≥1952 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.392 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
MPA min/week(Q) – MPA min/week(Acc) | 3-4.9 METs, 1952–5724 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.392 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
Adults | Reis (2005)[42] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | OPAQ | Total hr/week(Q) – VPA(Acc) | ≥5725 counts/min | Spearman r = −0.02 | – |
Total hr/week(Q) – MPA(Acc) | 1952-5724 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.12 | – | |||||
Total hr/week(Q) – light activity(Acc) | <1952 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.22 | – | |||||
Sedentary(Q) – light activity(Acc) | <1952 counts/min | Spearman r = −0.20 | – | |||||
Adults | Rosenberg (2010)[43] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | SBQ | Female: total sedentary hr/week(Q) – total sedentary counts(Acc) | <100 counts/min | Partial r = 0.10 (P = 0.07) | – |
Male: total sedentary hr/week(Q) – total sedentary counts(Acc) | <100 counts/min | Partial r = −0.01 (P = 0.81) | – | |||||
Adults | Sobngwi (2001)[44] | Acc (Caltrac) | 1 day | SSAAQ | Female: total METs(Q) – total METs(Acc) | – | r = 0.74 (P < 0.01) | – |
Male: total METs(Q) – total METs(Acc) | – | r = 0.60 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
HR (Polar) | 1 day | Urban female: total METs(Q) – total activity(HR) | – | r = 0.63 (P < 0.01) | – | |||
Rural female: total METs(Q) – total activity(HR) | – | r = 0.41 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Urban male: total METs(Q) – total activity(HR) | – | r = 0.54 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Rural male: total METs(Q) – total activity(HR) | – | r = 0.59 (P < 0.01) | – | |||||
Adults | Timperio (2003)[45] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | 1WPAR | Men: total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) | ≥3 METs, ≥1952 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.29 (P < 0.05) | – |
Women: total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) | ≥3 METs, ≥1952 counts/min | Spearman r = 0.25 (P < 0.05) | – | |||||
Adults | Wareham (2002)[46] | HR (Polar) | 4x 4 days | EPAQ2 | Total MET-hr/week(Q) – EE(HR) | – | Pearson partial r = 0.28 (P < 0.001) | – |
TV time(Q) – EE(HR) | – | Pearson partial r = −0.07 | – | |||||
Adults | Wareham (2003)[47] | HR (Polar) | 4x 4 days | EPAQ-s | Physical activity index(Q) – DayPAR(HR) | – | P for trend = 0.003 | – |
Total hr/week(Q) – DayPAR(HR) | – | r = 0.04 (P = 0.59) | – | |||||
Adults | Yore (2007)[48] | Acc (ActiGraph) | 7 days | BRFSS PAQ | VPA min/week(Q1) – VPA min/week(Acc) | ≥5999 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.52 | – |
VPA min/week(Q2) – VPA min/week(Acc) | ≥5999 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.54 | – | |||||
VPA min/week(Q3) – VPA min/week(Acc) | ≥5999 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.63 | – | |||||
MPA min/week(Q1) – MPA min/week(Acc) | 2020-5998 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.27 | – | |||||
MPA min/week(Q2) – MPA min/week(Acc) | 2020-5998 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.20 | – | |||||
MPA min/week(Q3) – MPA min/week(Acc) | 2020-5998 counts/min | Pearson r = 0.16 | – | |||||
Elderly | Yasunaga (2007)[49] | Acc (Kenz Lifecorder) | 1 month | PAQ-EJ | PAQ-EJ score(Q) – MET-min/day(Acc) | – | Spearman r = 0.41 (P < 0.05) | – |
Median Spearman r = 0.25 (youth: 0.22, adults: 0.27, elderly: 0.41) | ||||||||
Median Pearson r = 0.41 (youth: 0.41, adults: 0.28, elderly: –) |
Q1 = first completed questionnaire, Q2 = second completed questionnaire, Q3 = third completed questionnaire, r = correlation coefficient (rho), CI = Confidence Interval (lower;upper), κ = kappa (i.e. Cohen weighted kappa unless specified otherwise), LoA = Limits of Agreement, MD = Mean Difference, – = not stated.
Acc = Accelerometry [NB: ActiGraph (Model 7164) is successor of preceding accelerometer by MTI, formerly CSA]. Accelerometer names as used in the respective papers.
Ainsworth (2000): 3 point summary index = 3 domains: sports/exercise, occupation, active living habits. 4 point summary index = all 4 domains: sports/exercise, occupation, active living habits, housework/caregiving.
Craig (2003): Pooled Spearman = pooled results from data of 22 studies examining the IPAQ long form and 23 studies examining the short form.
Dwyer (2011): Levels 1–2 = stationary, level 3 = moving slowly, level 4 = moving at a medium or moderate pace, level 5 = moving at a fast pace.
Economos (2010): Moderate-high METs = 3–6 METs. High METs = ≥6 METs.
Fjeldsoe (2009): Total activity includes light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activities. HEPA = Health Enhancing Physical Activity: brisk walking and moderate- and vigorous activities from the planned activity and transport domains.
Kurtze (2007): EE = Energy Expenditure in MJ/day. PAL = total EE divided by basal metabolic rate (BMR). Light activity = no sweating or being out of breath. Hard activity = sweating/out of breath.
Kurtze (2008): EE = Energy Expenditure in MJ/day. PAL = total EE divided by basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Lowther (1999): Initial r = 0.1294, but after correction for less reliable high data (occupational walking data, extreme data for 4 participants) the correlation improved to 0.52.
Mäder (2006): IPAQ - Total MET-min/week = MET-min/week for total activity excluding sitting. OIMQ - Total MET-min/week = MET-min/week for total activity, i.e. moderate and vigorous activities.
Martinez-Gomez (2010): Counts/mov = counts adjusted by movement time over the recess time. MD = mean difference between the mean times spent at MVPA by the two instruments. Kappa = agreement between the two instruments among tertiles of total PA.
Reis (2005): ActiGraph only worn during occupational hours. Sedentary = sitting or standing activities.
Ridley (2001): CDPAQ-HC = hard copy of CDPAQ. MVPA = Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity. Total compendium METs = compendium values to derive total METs due to reported problems associated with children's perception of intensity (Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR Jr, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993 Jan;25(1):71–80).
Rosenberg (2010): Partial r = partial correlation, adjusted for age, marital status, white or nonwhite ethnicity, number of children, and highest level of education.
Sobngwi (2001): Total activity by Heart Rate monitoring is defined as variability in heart rate measured as area under the minute-to-minute heart rate curve and above individual resting heart rate.
Telford (2004): Validity results for total PA minutes for 5 to 6 or 10 to 12 year old children in parental proxy-reports or self-administered questionnaires.
Timperio (2003): Total activity in min/day is specified as ≥3 METs.
Treuth (2003): GAQ score = MET weighted mean score of 18 more reliable, and more frequently performed, activities. Activitygram score = average intensity/min over 3 day period. Other sedentary = sedentary activities excluding TV watching. The scores are an average of the two days administrations.
Treuth (2005): Fels PAQ score = mean Fels PAQ score (total activity) of both administrations of the PAQ. Counts/min = mean counts/min. Elementary = elementary school. Middle = middle school. High = high school.
Wareham (2002): Subject wore the HR monitor 4x four days across one year. EE = Energy Expenditure in kJ/hr. TV time = hours per week watching television and videos. Partial correlation coefficient is adjusted for age and sex.
Wareham (2003): Subject wore the HR monitor 4x four days across one year. Physical activity index = combined index for the four-level classification of self-reported occupational activity and four-level categorisation of time spent in cycling and other physical exercise. DayPAR = Physical Activity Ratio calculated as the ratio of daytime energy expenditure to resting energy expenditure. P for trend = P for positive trend of the association between DayPAR (measured by calibrated HR data) over four categories of physical activity (i.e. inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active) estimated from the EPAQ.
Welk (2007): PA bouts = number of sessions of physical activity performed during the week. Total MVPA mins = total minutes in moderate to vigorous physical activity performed during the previous day. Cut point used is Freedson age-based cut point, calculated as METs = 2.757 + (0.0015*counts per minute) - (0.0896*age[yr]) - (0.000038*counts per minute*age[yr]). Correlation = group-level correlation. No correlation coefficient specified.
Yasunaga (2007): PAQ-EJ score = MET score in MET-hr/week, calculated as number of days*time*intensity weight.
Helmerhorst et al.
Helmerhorst et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 9:103 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-103