Table 6

Reliability results of existing PAQs
Age Group Reference Test-retest period PAQ Variables tested Reliability results
Correlation coefficients Agreement
Youth Allor (2001)[60] Within 1 week PDPAR METs(Q1) – METs(Q2) ICC = 0.98
Youth Corder (2009)[61] 1 week YPAQ 12-13 yrs: PAEE(Q1) – PAEE(Q2) ICC = 0.86 (P < 0.001)
16-17 yrs: PAEE(Q1) – PAEE(Q2) ICC = 0.79 (P < 0.001)
CPAQ PAEE(Q1) – PAEE(Q2) ICC = 0.25
CHASE Lifestyle score(Q1) – lifestyle score(Q2) ICC = 0.02
SWAPAQ PAEE(Q1) – PAEE(Q2) ICC = 0.64 (P < 0.001)
Youth Eisenmann (2002)[62] Same day GLTEQ Total leisure activity score(Q1) – total leisure activity score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.62 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = −33.4 ± 10.28
Youth Huang (2009)[64] 1 week CLASS VPA min/week(Q1) – VPA min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.73 (0.64;0.79), P < 0.05
MVPA min/week(Q1) – MVPA min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.71 (0.61;0.77), P < 0.05
MPA min/week(Q1) – MPA min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.61 (0.49;0.70), P < 0.05
Sedentary min/week(Q1) – sedentary min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.69 (0.59;0.77), P < 0.05
Youth Mota (2002)[68] 7 days WAC Total activity(Q1) – total activity(Q2) ICC = 0.71
Youth Rangul (2008)[69] 8 - 12 days HBSC Frequency: sessions/week(Q1) – sessions/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.73 (0.60;0.82)
Duration: hr/week(Q1) – hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.71 (0.57;0.81)
IPAQ-s VPA min/day(Q1) – VPA min/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.30 (−0.07;0.56)
MPA min/day(Q1) – MPA min/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.34 (0.22;0.60)
Walking min/day(Q1) – walking min/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.10 (−0.10;0.39)
Sitting min/day(Q1) – sitting min/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.27 (−0.50;0.54)
Youth Treuth (2004)[72] 12 weeks GAQ Yesterday: GAQ score(Q1) – GAQ score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.59 (P < 0.001)
Usual: GAQ score(Q1) – GAQ score(Q2) Pearson r = 0.59 (P < 0.001)
Yesterday: TV watching(Q1) – TV watching(Q2) Pearson r = 0.13 (P < 0.373)
Usual: TV watching(Q1) – TV watching(Q2) Pearson r = 0.31 (P < 0.024)
Yesterday: other sedentary(Q1) – other sedentary(Q2) Pearson r = 0.32 (P < 0.019)
Usual: other sedentary(Q1) – other sedentary(Q2) Pearson r = 0.30 (P < 0.032)
Youth Troped (2007)[73] 5 - 40 days YRBS VPA(Q1) – VPA(Q2) ICC = 0.46
MPA(Q1) – MPA(Q2) ICC = 0.51
Youth Weston (1997)[74] Within 1 hour PDPAR TEE(Q1) – TEE(Q2) Pearson r = 0.98 (P < 0.01)
Adults Brown (2008)[88] 7 - 28 days AAS Frequency/week(Q1) – frequency/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.58
Total min/week(Q1) – total min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.64
Adults Bull (2009)[58] 3 - 7 days GPAQ Leisure: total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Spearman r = 0.78 (P < 0.01)
Occupation: total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Spearman r = 0.77 (P < 0.01)
Transportation: total min(Q1) – total min(Q2) Spearman r = 0.81 (P < 0.01)
Leisure: sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) κ (% agreement) = 0.68 (85.6)
Occupation: sedentary(Q1) – sedentary(Q2) κ (% agreement) = 0.73 (86.9)
Adults Cust (2008)[102] 10 months EPAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.65 (0.55;0.72), P < 0.0001
Total PA index(Q1) – total PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.62 (0.53;0.71), P < 0.0001
Cambridge PA index(Q1) – Cambridge PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.66 (0.58;0.74), P < 0.0001
Adults Cust (2009)[103] 10 months EPAQ High confidence: total PA index(Q1) – total PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.65 (0.53;0.76)
Low confidence: total PA index(Q1) – total PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.58 (0.45;0.71)
High confidence: Cambridge PA index(Q1) – Cambridge PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.73 (0.61;0.84)
Low confidence: Cambridge PA index(Q1) – Cambridge PA index(Q2) κ (95 % CI) = 0.59 (0.47;0.71)
IPAQ-s High confidence: total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.53 (0.36;0.67)
Low confidence: total MET-hr/week(Q1) – total MET-hr/week(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.33 (0.11;0.52)
High confidence: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.50 (0.32;0.65)
Low confidence: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.65 (0.51;0.75)
Adults Duncan (2001)[104] 7 days 7DPAR TEE(Q1) – TEE(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.26;0.59)
Adults Gauthier (2009)[105] 1 day IPAQ-SALVCF Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.929 (0.860;0.965), P < 0.01
Sitting(Q1) – sitting(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.899 (0.800;0.950), P < 0.01
Adults Hallal (2010)[108] 5 days IPAQ Total score(T1) – total score(T2) Spearman r = 0.90 MD = 3 min, κ (% agreement) = 0.78 (90.0)
Total score(T1T2) – total score(FTF) Spearman r = 0.87 MD = 30 min, κ (% agreement) = 0.69 (85.5)
Adults Kurtze (2008)[54] 1 week IPAQ-s VPA hr/day(Q1) – VPA hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.62 (0.47;0.73)
MPA hr/day(Q1) – MPA hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.30 (0.09;0.49)
Walking hr/day(Q1) – walking hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.42 (0.23;0.59)
Sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.80 (0.70;0.87)
Adults MacFarlane (2007)[99] 3 days IPAQ-s Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.79 (0.66;0.88), %CV (95 % CI) = 26 (22;33)
Sitting MET-min/week(Q1) – sitting MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.97 (0.95;0.98), %CV (95 % CI) = 15 (12;18)
Adults MacFarlane (2010)[110] 3 days IPAQ-LC Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) ICC = 0.93, %CV = 22.8
Sitting MET-min/week(Q1) – sitting MET-min/week(Q2) ICC = 0.71, %CV = 15.0
Adults Matton (2007)[111] 2 weeks FPACQ Employed/unemployed men: total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.95 (0.89;0.97)
Employed/unemployed women: total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.92 (0.85;0.96)
Retired men: total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.90 (0.76;0.96)
Retired women: total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.96 (0.90;0.99)
Employed/unemployed men: PAL(Q1) – PAL(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.92 (0.84;0.96)
Employed/unemployed women: PAL(Q1) – PAL(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.78 (0.61;0.88)
Retired men: PAL(Q1) – PAL(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.89 (0.76;0.96)
Retired women: PAL(Q1) – PAL(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.77 (0.47;0.91)
Employed/unemployed men: TV hr/week(Q1) – TV hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.93 (0.86;0.97)
Employed/unemployed women: TV hr/week(Q1) – TV hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.92 (0.84;0.96)
Retired men: TV hr/week(Q1) – TV hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.76 (0.49;0.89)
Retired women: TV hr/week(Q1) – TV hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.89 (0.72;0.96)
Adults Nang (2011)[55] 2 - 10 months IPAQ VPA(Q1) – VPA(Q2) Spearman r = 0.38 (P < 0.05)
MPA(Q1) – MPA(Q2) Spearman r = 0.58 (P < 0.0001)
SP2PAQ VPA(Q1) – VPA(Q2) Spearman r = 0.75 (P < 0.0001)
MPA(Q1) – MPA(Q2) Spearman r = 0.55 (P < 0.0001)
Adults Pettee-Gabriel (2009)[91] 1 - 4 weeks PMMAQ MET-hr/week(Q1) – MET-hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.64 (0.48;0.77), P < 0.0001
PWMAQ MET-hr/week(Q1) – MET-hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.74 (0.60;0.83), P < 0.0001
NHS-PAQ MET-hr/week(Q1) – MET-hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.48 (0.26;0.65), P < 0.0001
AAS Min/day(Q1) – min/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.32 (0.09;0.52), P < 0.01
WHI-PAQ MET-hr/week(Q1) – MET-hr/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.91 (0.86;0.95), P < 0.0001
Adults Richardson (2001)[100] 1 month S7DR Men: total MET-min/day(Q1) – total MET-min/day(Q2) Spearman r = 0.60 (P < 0.01)
Women: total MET-min/day(Q1) – total MET-min/day(Q2) Spearman r = 0.36 (P < 0.05)
Adults Saglam (2010)[112] 3 - 7 days IPAQ Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.64 (0.56;0.72), P < 0.001
Sitting min(Q1) – sitting min(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.83 (0.77;0.89), P < 0.001
IPAQ-s Total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.69 (0.61;0.77), P < 0.001
Sitting min(Q1) – sitting min(Q2) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.78 (0.71;0.85), P < 0.001
Adults Schmidt (2006)[92] 7 days KPAS-mod Total activity score(Q1) – total activity score(Q2) ICC = 0.84
Weighted activity score(Q1) – weighted activity score(Q2) ICC = 0.76
Adults Smitherman (2009)[113] 2 weeks JPAC JPAC total score(Q1) – JPAC total score(Q2) ICC = 0.99
Adults Trinh (2009)[115] 2 weeks (dry season) GPAQ GPAQ total score(Q1) – GPAQ total score(Q2) Spearman r = 0.69 (P < 0.001) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.00 (0.03;31.82), κ (95 % CI) = 0.66 (0.53;0.79)
2 months (wet season) GPAQ total score(Q1) – GPAQ total score(Q2) Spearman r = 0.55 (P < 0.001) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.12 (0.02;71.09), κ (95 % CI) = 0.57 (0.46;0.65)
2 weeks (dry season) Sedentary time(Q1) – sedentary time(Q2) Spearman r = 0.69 (P < 0.001) κ (95 % CI) = 0.61 (0.58;0.70)
2 months (wet season) Sedentary time(Q1) – sedentary time(Q2) Spearman r = 0.50 (P < 0.001) κ (95 % CI) = 0.45 (0.36;0.54)
Elderly De Abajo (2001)[76] 2 weeks YPAS Total time(Q1) – total time(Q2) ICC = 0.66 (P = 0.001)
Total EE(Q1) – total EE(Q2) ICC = 0.65 (P = 0.001)
YPAS summary index(Q1) – YPAS summary index(Q2) ICC = 0.31 (P = 0.002)
Sitting(Q1) – sitting(Q2) ICC = 0.29 (P = 0.003)
Elderly Dinger (2004)[77] 3 days PASE Total PASE score(Q1) – total PASE score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.91 (0.83;0.94)
Elderly Dubbert (2004)[78] 2 - 4 weeks 7DPAR TEE(Q1) – TEE(Q2) ICC = 0.89 (P < 0.001)
Elderly Giles (2009)[79] 1 - 2 weeks CHAMPS-MMSCV Volume: MET-min/week(Q1) – MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.84 (0.69;0.91), Spearman r = 0.62
Frequency: sessions/week(Q1) – sessions/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.89 (0.77;0.95), Spearman r = 0.79
Duration: min/week(Q1) – min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.81 (0.63;0.90), Spearman r = 0.57
Elderly Hagiwara (2008)[80] 3 - 4 weeks PASE Total PASE score(Q1) – total PASE score(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.65 (0.58;0.72)
Elderly Harada (2001)[82] 2 weeks CHAMPS EE(Q1) – EE(Q2) ICC = 0.62, Pearson r = 0.62
Elderly Kolbe-Alexander (2006)[83] 3 - 5 days IPAQ-s Men: total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.54 (P = 0.0001) MD (95 % LoA) = 324.58 ± 7534.85 MET-min/week
Women: total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.60 (P = 0.0000) MD (95 % LoA) = 347.14 ± 4016.88 MET-min/week
Men: sitting MET-hr/week(Q1) – sitting MET-hr/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.76 (P = 0.0000)
Women: sitting MET-hr/week(Q1) – sitting MET-hr/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.77 (P = 0.0000)
YPAS Men: total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.57 (P = 0.00001) MD (95 % LoA) = −582.17 ± 4867.14 MET-min/week
Women: total MET-min/week(Q1) – total MET-min/week(Q2) Spearman r = 0.62 (P = 0.0000) MD (95 % LoA) = 26.77 ± 4474.64 MET-min/week
Elderly Tomioka (2011)[85] 2 weeks IPAQ-s Young old men: MET-min/week(Q1) – MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.65 (0.46;0.78)
Young old women: MET-min/week(Q1) – MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.57 (0.34;0.72)
Old old men: MET-min/week(Q1) – MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.50 (0.22;0.68)
Old old women: MET-min/week(Q1) – MET-min/week(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.56 (0.30;0.72)
Young old men: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.82 (0.71;0.88)
Young old women: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.70 (0.54;0.80)
Old old men: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.66 (0.48;0.78)
Old old women: sitting hr/day(Q1) – sitting hr/day(Q2) ICC (95 % CI) = 0.67 (0.48;0.80)
Median ICC = 0.71 (youth: 0.64, adults: 0.79, elderly: 0.65)
Median Spearman r = 0.62 (youth: –, adults: 0.64, elderly: 0.60)
Median Pearson r = 0.62 (youth: 0.605, adults: –, elderly: 0.62)
Median κ = 0.655 (youth: –, adults: 0.655, elderly: –)

Q1 = first completed questionnaire, Q2 = second completed questionnaire, r = correlation coefficient (rho), ICC = Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, CI = Confidence Interval (lower;upper), %CV = coefficient of variation (within subjects standard deviation of typical error) as a percentage of the mean score, κ = kappa (i.e. Cohen weighted kappa unless specified otherwise), LoA = Limits of Agreement, MD = Mean Difference, – = not stated.

Bull (2009): Total min = total time per domain of the pooled data (n = 2221) of 7 countries (Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Indonesia, South Africa, Japan, Taiwan). Leisure = discretionary domain, occupation = work domain, transportation = transport domain. Sedentary = categorical variable of pooled data (n = 1524) for no physical activity in the discretionary or work domain.

Corder (2009): PAEE in kJ/kg/day for total group, or for 12 – 13 or 16 – 17 year old children. Lifestyle score = summed score of four multiple choice questions regarding active transport, school break activities, activity outside school, and the amount of "exercise that makes you out of breath".

Cust (2008): Total MET-hr/week = total MET hours per week of non-occupational activity. Total PA index = cross-tabulation of level of occupational activity with combined recreational and household activities - inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active. Cambridge PA index = index based on occupational, cycling and sports activity (generally more intense activities).

Cust (2009): Results are stratified according to the group of participants reporting high or low confidence in recall of PA. High confidence = group of participants reporting high self-reported confidence in recall of physical activity. Low confidence = group of participants reporting low self-reported confidence in recall of physical activity.

De Abajo (2001): EE in kJ/day. YPAS summary index = summed time for each activity, expressed in hours per week for each subject. Individual indices were created by multiplying a frequency score by a duration score and multiplying again by a weighting factor.

Dinger (2004): Total PASE score = weighted and summed score of individual items using the PASE scoring algorithm.

Eisenmann (2002): Same day = beginning and end of the day. Total leisure activity score was calculated by multiplying the frequency of each category by the MET value and summing the score.

Gauthier (2009): Total MET-min/week = total activity excluding sitting.

Hagiwara (2008): PASE score was calculated by adding the score for each component determined on the basis of the time spent on each activity or the presence or absence of activity over the past 7 days. In the paper more details (κ or weighted κ and the proportion of consistency) are reported for each separate activity component.

Hallal (2010): Total score = sum of minutes spent on MPA (including walking) per week, and twice the number of minutes spent on VPA. T1 = telephone interview on day 1. T2 = telephone interview on day 6. FTF = face-to-face interview on day 1.

Harada (2001): EE in kcal/week.

Huang (2009): Activity intensities classified according to a compendium of physical activities.

Kolbe-Alexander (2006): sitting = time spent sitting during a week and weekend day.

Kurtze (2008): VPA = 8 METs, MPA = 4 METs, Walking = 3.3 METs on average.

MacFarlane (2007/2010): Total MET-min/week = total activity excluding sitting (1 MET).

Matton (2007): EE in kcal/week. PAL is calculated as total EE divided by 168 (number of hours per week) and the reported body weight. TV hr/week = time per week spent watching television or videos or playing computer games during weekdays and weekends.

Nang (2011): VPA(Q) = 3–6 METs kcal/day, MPA(Q) = >6 METs kcal/day.

Pettee-Gabriel (2009): Test-retest period = 1 week for PWMAQ (n = 65), NHS-PAQ (n = 62), AAS (n = 65), WHI-PAQ (n = 63) and 1 month for PMMAQ (n = 65).

Schmidt (2006): Total activity score = activity score of all four domains, calculated as: (household/caregiving index*0.25 + occupational index*0.25 + active living index*0.25 + sports/exercise index*0.25)*4. Weighted activity score = activity score of all four domains, calculated as: (household/caregiving index*0.50 + occupational index*0.20 + active living index*0.25 + sports/exercise index*0.05)*4.

Smitherman (2009): JPAC total score = total score calculated by summing the 4 index scores (active living, work, home/family/yard/garden, sport/exercise index) and can range from 3 to 20.

Tomioka (2011): Young old = age 65–74, old old = age 75–89.

Treuth (2004): GAQ score yesterday = summary score estimated from 28 physical activities performed on the previous day (yesterday), applying the code 0 for the response "none", 1 for the response "less than 15 min", and 10 for the response "15 min or more". GAQ score usual = summary score estimated from usual activities, based on frequency of physical activities performed, applying the code 0 for the response "none", 1 for the response "a little", and 10 for the response "a lot". The GAQ summary scores were computed as the total MET-weighted score divided by the number of nonmissing items. TV watching = time spent watching TV or video. Other sedentary = time spent performing computer or video games, arts and crafts, board games, homework or reading, talking on phone or hanging out.

Trinh (2009): GPAQ total score = score of 19 items following the GPAQ analysis protocol. Sedentary time = time spent sitting or reclining. MD (95 % LoA) = log-transformed average difference with 95 % limits of agreement. Compared with the baseline assessment, the GPAQ score was on average not different and 12 % higher, respectively, 2 weeks later.

Troped (2007): MPA = number of days participating in ≥ 30 min of moderate PA during past 7 days. VPA = number of days participating in ≥ 20 min of vigorous PA during past 7 days.

Weston (1997): TEE in kcal/kg/day.

Helmerhorst et al.

Helmerhorst et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 9:103   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-103

Open Data