Table 7

Validity results of existing PAQs
Age Group Reference Criterion method Duration of validation PAQ Variables tested Criterion intensity thresholds Validity results
Correlation coefficients Agreement
Youth Affuso (2011)[59] Acc (ActiGraph) 3 days SAPAC Sedentary mins(Q) – sedentary mins(Acc) <100 counts/min Pearson r (95 % CI) = 0.18 (0.07;0.28), Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.14 (0.05;0.23)
Youth Allor (2001)[60] Acc (Caltrac) 2 days PDPAR EE(Q) – EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.76 (P < 0.01) MD = ~100 kcal/hr (P < 0.01)
HR 2 days EE(Q) – EE(HR) Pearson r = 0.50 (P < 0.01) MD = ~100 kcal/hr
Youth Corder (2009)[61] DLW 11 days YPAQ 12-13 yrs: PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.09 (P = 0.67) MD (95 % LoA) = 0.59 ± 6.3 kJ/kg/day
16-17 yrs: PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.46 (P = 0.03) MD (95 % LoA) = 0.32 ± 4.6 kJ/kg/day
Acc (ActiGraph) 11 days 12-13 yrs: MVPA(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.42 (P = 0.04) MD (95 % LoA) = 2.01 ± 2.25 min/week
16-17 yrs: MVPA(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.11 (P = 0.61) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.38 ± 2.97 min/week
DLW 11 days CPAQ PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.22 (P = 0.28) MD (95 % LoA) = 0.76 ± 3.1 kJ/kg/day
Acc (ActiGraph) 11 days MVPA(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.42 (P = 0.04) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.63 ± 2.24 min/week
DLW 11 days CHASE Lifestyle score(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.45 (P = 0.02)
Acc (ActiGraph) 11 days Lifestyle score(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.12 (P = 0.57)
DLW 11 days SWAPAQ PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.40 (P = 0.04) MD (95 % LoA) = 0.46 ± 8.5 kJ/kg/day
Acc (ActiGraph) 11 days MVPA(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.23 (P = 0.27) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.03 ± 2.58 min/week
Youth Eisenmann (2002)[62] Acc (Caltrac) 1 day GLTEQ Total leisure activity score(Q) – counts/hr(Acc) Pearson r = 0.50
Youth Gwynn (2010)[63] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days MRPARQ MVPA min/day(Q) – MVPA min/day(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Pearson r = 0.37 (P < 0.05), ICC = 0.25 (P < 0.05)
Youth Hagströmer (2008)[56] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-A Total MET-min/day(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.20 (P < 0.01)
Youth Huang (2009)[64] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days CLASS Boys: VPA min/week(Q) – VPA min/week(Acc) ≥6 METs Spearman r = 0.29 MD (95 % LoA) = 12.6 ± 47.4 min/week
Girls: VPA min/week(Q) – VPA min/week(Acc) ≥6 METs Spearman r = 0.43 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = 12.6 ± 47.4 min/week
Boys: MVPA min/week(Q) – MVPA min/week(Acc) ≥3 METs Spearman r = 0.27 MD (95 % LoA) = −6.2 ± 95.3 min/week
Girls: MVPA min/week(Q) – MVPA min/week(Acc) ≥3 METs Spearman r = 0.48 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = −6.2 ± 95.3 min/week
Boys: MPA min/week(Q) – MPA min/week(Acc) 3-5.9 METs Spearman r = 0.33 MD (95 % LoA) = −18.9 ± 70.4 min/week
Girls: MPA min/week(Q) – MPA min/week(Acc) 3-5.9 METs Spearman r = 0.29 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = −18.9 ± 70.4 min/week
Boys: sedentary min/week(Q) – sedentary min/week(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.06
Girls: sedentary min/week(Q) – sedentary min/week(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.25 (P < 0.05)
Youth Kowalski (1997)[65] Acc (Caltrac) 7 days PAQ-C PAQ-C score(Q) – total counts(Acc) Pearson r = 0.39 (P < 0.05)
Youth Martinez-Gomez (2010)[66] Acc (ActiGraph) 3 days BAD Total MET-min/day(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.29
Total MET-min/day(Q) – total counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.33
Youth Martinez-Gomez (2011)[67] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days PAQ-A PAQ-A score(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.39 (P < 0.001)
PAQ-A score(Q) – MVPA mins(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.31 (P < 0.001)
Youth Mota (2002)[68] Acc (ActiGraph) 3 days WAC METs/15 min(Q) – counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.30 (P = 0.01)
Youth Ottevaere (2011)[57] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-A VPA min/day(Q) – VPA min/day(Acc) ≥4000 counts/min Spearman r = 0.25 (P < 0.01) MD (95 % LoA) = 13.2 ± 78.2 min/day
MVPA min/day(Q) – MVPA min/day(Acc) ≥2000 counts/min Spearman r = 0.21 (P < 0.01)
MPA min/day(Q) – MPA min/day(Acc) 2000-3999 counts/min Spearman r = 0.15 (P < 0.01) MD (95 % LoA) = 31.6 ± 105.6 min/day
Youth Rangul (2008)[69] Acc (ActiReg) 7 days HBSC Frequency(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.20
Frequency(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = 0.02
Duration(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.23
Duration(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = 0.01
IPAQ-s VPA min/day(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = −0.14
VPA min/day(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = −0.08
MPA min/day(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.01
MPA min/day(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = 0.01
Walking min/day(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.24
Walking min/day(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = 0.43 (P < 0.01)
Sitting min/day(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r = −0.04
Sitting min/day(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = −0.29
Youth Scerpella (2002)[70] Acc (Caltrac) 2x 3 days GSQ Godin-Shephard score(Q) – Caltrac score(Acc) Spearman r = 0.102 (P = 0.422)
Youth Slinde (2003)[71] DLW 14 days MLTPAQ TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.01)
eMLTPAQ TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.65 (P < 0.01) MD (95 % LoA) = 2.8 ± 2.8 MJ/day
Sedentary min/day(Q) – TEE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.030 (P = 0.86)
Youth Treuth (2004)[72] Acc (ActiGraph) 3 days GAQ Baseline: yesterday GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.06 (P = 0.42)
Follow-up: yesterday GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.08 (P = 0.28)
Baseline: usual GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.12 (P = 0.10)
Follow-up: usual GAQ score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.07 (P = 0.36)
Youth Troped (2007)[73] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days YRBS Total VPA min/day(Q) – total VPA min/day(Acc) >6 METs Sensitivity = 0.86, specificity: 0.26 κ = −0.002 – 0.06
Total MPA min/day(Q) – total MPA min/day(Acc) 3-6 METs Sensitivity = 0.23, specificity: 0.92 κ = −0.05 – 0.03
Youth Weston (1997)[74] Acc (Caltrac) 1 day (after school) PDPAR TEE(Q) – total counts(Acc) Pearson r = 0.77 (P < 0.01)
HR (Polar) 1 day (after school) EE(Q) – %HRR(HR) Pearson r = 0.53 (P < 0.01)
Adults Ainsworth (1999)[87] Acc (Caltrac) 7 days TOQ MPA MET-min/week(Q) – EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.34 (P < 0.05)
7DR-O 7DR scores(Q) – EE(Acc) Low correlations (P > 0.05)
Adults Bassett (2000)[101] Ped (Yamax) 7 days CAQ Men: distance(Q) – distance(Ped) r = 0.346 (P = 0.02)
Women: distance(Q) – distance(Ped) r = 0.481 (P = 0.001)
Adults Brown (2008)[88] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days AAS Frequency/week(Q) – frequency(Acc) ≥3 METs, ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.48 (P = 0.001)
Total min/week(Q) – MVPA(Acc) ≥3 METs, ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.52 (P < 0.001)
Total min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.23 (P = 0.14)
Adults Bull (2009)[58] Acc (MTI) > 7 days GPAQ China: VPA(Q) – mean VPA counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.23 (P < 0.05)
South Africa: VPA(Q) – mean VPA counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.26 (P < 0.05)
China: MPA(Q) – mean MPA counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.23 (P < 0.05)
South Africa: MPA(Q) – mean MPA counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = −0.03
China: sedentary min/day(Q) – mean sedentary counts/day(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.40 (P < 0.05)
South Africa: sedentary min/day(Q) – mean sedentary counts/day(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = −0.02
Adults Conway (2002)[94] DLW 14 days 7DPAR TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) R2 = 0.10 MD (±SEM) = 0.91 ± 0.42 (7.9 ± 3.2 %) MJ/day
S7DR TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) R2 = 0.14 MD (±SEM) = 4.14 ± 1.36 (30.6 ± 9.9 %) MJ/day
Adults Cust (2008)[102] Acc (ActiGraph) 3x 7 days EPAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.21 (0.07;0.35), P < 0.01
Total PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.29 (0.15;0.42), P < 0.0001
Cambridge PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.32 (0.19;0.45), P < 0.0001
Adults Cust (2009)[103] Acc (ActiGraph) 3x 7 days EPAQ High confidence: total PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.37 (0.17;0.54)
Low confidence: total PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.22 (0.02;0.41)
High confidence: Cambridge PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.30 (0.10;0.48)
Low confidence: Cambridge PA index(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.35 (0.15;0.52)
IPAQ-s High confidence: total MET-hr/week(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.26 (0.04;0.45)
Low confidence: total MET-hr/week(Q) – total MET-hr/week(Acc) ≥574 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.27 (0.07;0.46)
High confidence: sitting hr/day(Q) – sedentary(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.36 (0.18;0.52)
Low confidence: sitting hr/day(Q) – sedentary(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.45 (0.25;0.62)
Adults Duncan (2001)[104] HR (Polar) 1 weekday 7DPAR Very hard activity(Q) – very hard activity(HR) ≥ 85 % HRR MD = 0.00 hours
Hard activity(Q) – hard activity(HR) 60-84 % HRR MD = 0.02 hours
Moderate activity(Q) – moderate activity(HR) 45-59 % HRR MD = 0.21 hours
Adults Ekelund (2006)[95] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-s Total MET-min/day(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Pearson r = 0.34 (P < 0.001) MD (95 % CI) = −25.9 (−172;120) min/day, P < 0.001
Sitting(Q) – sedentary min/day(Acc) <100 counts/min Pearson r = 0.16 (P < 0.05)
Adults Gauthier (2009)[105] Ped (Yamax) 7 days IPAQ-SALVCF Walking(Q) – step counts(Ped) Pearson r = 0.493 (P < 0.005)
Adults Hagströmer (2006)[106] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.55 (P < 0.001) MD (95 % LoA) = 1.0 ± 16.7 hr/week
Sitting hr/week(Q) – inactivity hr/week(Acc) <101 counts/min Spearman r = 0.17
Adults Hagströmer (2010)[107] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ Total min/day(Q) – total min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.28 (P < 0.01)
Total MET-min/day(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.30 (P < 0.01)
Sitting min/day(Q) – sitting min/day(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.23 (P < 0.01) MD (±SD) = 130  ±  207 min/day, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.50
Adults Hallal (2010)[108] Acc (ActiGraph) 4 days IPAQ Total score(Q) – total score(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.22
Adults InterAct Consortium (2011)[51] Acc + HR (Actiheart) ≥ 4 days EPAQ-s Total PA index(Q) – PAEE(Acc + HR) Pearson r (95 % CI) = 0.14 (0.04;0.24), P = 0.000
Cambridge index(Q) – PAEE(Acc + HR) Pearson r (95 % CI) = 0.33 (0.28;0.38), P = 0.118
Recreational index(Q) – PAEE(Acc + HR) Pearson r (95 % CI) = 0.22 (0.16;0.28), P = 0.042
Adults Jacobi (2009)[109] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days MAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.18 (P < 0.05)
Sedentary hr/week(Q) – sedentary hr/week(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.14 (P < 0.1)
Adults Kurtze (2008)[54] Acc (ActiReg) 7 days IPAQ-s Total MET-min/week(Q) – EE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.26 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = −433 ± 2038 min/week
Total MET-min/week(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = 0.29 (P < 0.05)
Sitting hr/day(Q) – EE(Acc) Spearman r = −0.25 (P < 0.05)
Sitting hr/day(Q) – PAL(Acc) Spearman r = −0.35 (P < 0.01)
Adults Lee (2011)[98] Acc (ActiGraph) 4 days IPAQ-s Total MET-min/week(Q) – total MET-min/week(Acc) Spearman r (±SE) = 0.11 ± 0.03, P < 0.001 MD (±SE) = 2966.3 ± 140.1 MET-min/week, P < 0.001
Total MET-min/week(Q) – total counts/min(Acc) Spearman r (±SE) = 0.16 ± 0.03, P < 0.001
Adults MacFarlane (2007)[99] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-s Total min/week(Q) – total MVPA min/week(Acc) ≥1952 counts/min Spearman r = 0.09 (P = 0.52) R2 = 0.78, slope = 1.59 (P < 0.01); %bias = −102, %LoA = 176
Adults MacFarlane (2010)[110] Acc (ActiTrainer) 7 days IPAQ-LC Total MET-min/day(Q) – total MET-min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.35 (P = 0.001) MD (95 % LoA) = −21.6 ± 575.5 MET-min/day, P = 0.643
Adults Mahabir (2006)[89] DLW HAQ EE(Q) – EE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.36 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = 1782.5 ± 2237.4 kcal/day
FCPQ EE(Q) – EE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.47 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % LoA) = 732.8 ± 2126.7 kcal/day
CAPS-4WR EE(Q) – EE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.16 MD (95 % LoA) = 1765.8 ± 8973.7 kcal/day
CAPS-TWR EE(Q) – EE(DLW) Spearman r = 0.15 MD (95 % LoA) = −413.4 ± 2958.6 kcal/day
Adults Matton (2007)[111] Acc (RT3) 7 days FPACQ Employed/unemployed men: total EE(Q) – total EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.80 (P < 0.001) t-test = 9.02 (P < 0.001)
Employed/unemployed women: total EE(Q) – total EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.65 (P < 0.001) t-test = 10.18 (P < 0.001)
Retired men: total EE(Q) – total EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.55 (P < 0.01) t-test = 11.48 (P < 0.001)
Retired women: total EE(Q) – total EE(Acc) Pearson r = 0.85 (P < 0.001) t-test = 10.79 (P < 0.001)
Employed/unemployed men: PAL(Q) – PAL(Acc) Pearson r = 0.56 (P < 0.01) t-test = 9.87 (P < 0.001)
Employed/unemployed women: PAL(Q) – PAL(Acc) Pearson r = 0.44 (P < 0.05) t-test = 11.68 (P < 0.001)
Retired men: PAL(Q) – PAL(Acc) Pearson r = 0.39 (P < 0.05) t-test = 11.91 (P < 0.001)
Retired women: PAL(Q) – PAL(Acc) Pearson r = 0.50 (P < 0.05) t-test = 13.93 (P < 0.001)
Employed/unemployed men: TV hr/week(Q) – TV hr/week(Acc) Pearson r = 0.69 (P < 0.001) t-test = −0.75
Employed/unemployed women: TV hr/week(Q) – TV hr/week(Acc) Pearson r = 0.83 (P < 0.001) t-test = −3.32 (P < 0.01)
Retired men: TV hr/week(Q) – TV hr/week(Acc) Pearson r = 0.78 (P < 0.001) t-test = −3.98 (P < 0.001)
Retired women: TV hr/week(Q) – TV hr/week(Acc) Pearson r = 0.80 (P < 0.001) t-test = −2.41 (P < 0.05)
Adults Nang (2011)[55] Acc (Actical) 5 days IPAQ VPA(Q) – VPA(Acc) Spearman r = 0.18 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % CI) = 139 (82;196) kcal/day
MPA(Q) – MPA(Acc) Spearman r = 0.13 MD (95 % CI) = −169 (−236;-90) kcal/day
SP2PAQ VPA(Q) – VPA(Acc) Spearman r = 0.42 (P < 0.0001) MD (95 % CI) = 81 (47;116) kcal/day
MPA(Q) – MPA(Acc) Spearman r = 0.24 (P < 0.05) MD (95 % CI) = −196 (−295;-97) kcal/day
Adults Nicaise (2011)[90] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ VPA(Q) – VPA(Acc) ≥5725 counts/min Pearson r = −0.01
MPA(Q) – MPA(Acc) 1952-5724 counts/min Pearson r = 0.08
Walking(Q) – steps(Acc) Pearson r = 0.07
Weekday: sitting(Q) – light PA(Acc) ≤1951 counts/min Pearson r = −0.17
Weekend: sitting(Q) – light PA(Acc) ≤1951 counts/min Pearson r = −0.08
Adults Pettee-Gabriel (2009)[91] Acc (ActiGraph) ≥ 4 days PMMAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.60 (P < 0.0001)
Total MET-hr/week(Q) – mean counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.59 (P < 0.0001)
PWMAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.60 (P < 0.0001)
Total MET-hr/week(Q) – mean counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.56 (P < 0.0001)
NHS-PAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.46 (P < 0.001)
Total MET-hr/week(Q) – mean counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.42 (P < 0.001)
AAS Total min/day(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.46 (P < 0.001)
Total min/day(Q) – mean counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.50 (P < 0.0001)
WHI-PAQ Total MET-hr/week(Q) – total counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.47 (P < 0.001)
Total MET-hr/week(Q) – mean counts/min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.45 (P < 0.001)
Adults Philippaerts (1999)[96] DLW 14 days BAQ Total activity index(Q) – ADMR(DLW) Pearson r = 0.68 (P < 0.01)
Total activity index(Q) – PAL(DLW) Pearson r = 0.69 (P < 0.001)
FCPQ 7 day index(Q) – ADMR(DLW) Pearson r = 0.61 (P < 0.01)
7 day index(Q) – PAL(DLW) Pearson r = 0.34
TCQ TEE(Q) – ADMR(DLW) Pearson r = 0.63 (P < 0.01)
TEE(Q) – PAL(DLW) Pearson r = 0.64 (P < 0.01)
Adults Philippaerts (2001)[97] Acc (Tracmor) 4 days BAQ Total activity index(Q) – mean counts(Acc) Pearson r = 0.47 (P < 0.001)
TCQ TEE(Q) – mean counts(Acc) Pearson r = 0.22
Adults Richardson (2001)[100] Acc (Caltrac) 14x 2 days S7DR Men, visit 10: total MET-min/day(Q) – total MET-min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.54 (P < 0.01)
Men, visit 11: total MET-min/day(Q) – total MET-min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.45 (P < 0.05)
Women, visit 10: total MET-min/day(Q) – total MET-min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.20
Women, visit 11: total MET-min/day(Q) – total MET-min/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.06
Adults Saglam (2010)[112] Acc (Caltrac) 4 days IPAQ Total MET-min/week(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.29 (0.05;0.47), P = 0.009
IPAQ-s Total MET-min/week(Q) – TEE(Acc) Spearman r (95 % CI) = 0.30 (0.07;0.49), P = 0.008
Adults Schmidt (2006)[92] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days KPAS-mod Total activity score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.52
Weighted activity score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.59
Adults Smitherman (2009)[113] Acc (ActiGraph) 1 day JPAC JPAC total score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.24 (P < 0.0001)
Adults Staten (2001)[93] DLW 8 days AAFQ TEE-ic(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.40 (P < 0.001) MD = 1935 kJ/day
TEE-mif(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.45 (P < 0.001) MD = 697 kJ/day
TEE-met(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.58 (P < 0.001) MD = 3595 kJ/day
Adults Strath (2004)[114] Acc + HR (ActiGraph + Polar) 7 days CAQ-PAI MET-min/week(Q) – MET-min/week(Acc + HR) Spearman r = 0.35
Adults Trinh (2009)[115] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days GPAQ Dry season: GPAQ total score(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.33 MD (95 % LoA) = 2.6 (0.03;224)
Wet season: GPAQ total score(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.19 MD (95 % LoA) = 2.6 (0.03;224)
Dry season: sedentary time(Q) – sedentary time(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.22
Wet season: sedentary time(Q) – sedentary time(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.31
Adults Washburn (2003)[116] DLW 14 days S7DR TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.58 (P < 0.01) MD (95 % LoA) = −96 ± 4161 kJ/day
PAEE(Q) – PAEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.12 MD (95 % LoA) = −222 ± 4144 kJ/day
Adults Wolin (2008)[117] Acc (Actical) 6 days IPAQ-s 1-min bout: MET-min/week(Q) – counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.36 (P < 0.001) κ (95 % CI) = 0.21 (−0.04;0.47)
10-min bout: MET-min/week(Q) – counts/day(Acc) Spearman r = 0.26 (P = 0.002) κ (95 % CI) = 0.04 (0.01;0.06)
Elderly Bonnefoy (2001)[75] DLW 14 days MLTPAQ Total activity(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.23, Spearman r = 0.17
YPAS Summary index(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.11, Spearman r = 0.10
BAQ-mod Questionnaire score(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.21, Spearman r = 0.28
CAQ Total activity(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.39, Spearman r = 0.37
7DR Total activity(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.37, Spearman r = 0.51 (P < 0.05)
DQ-mod Total score(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.21, Spearman r = 0.34
LRC Enhanced LRC score(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.33, Spearman r = 0.29
SUA MPA(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.65 (P < 0.05), Spearman r = 0.46
VPA(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.63 (P < 0.05), Spearman r = 0.64 (P < 0.05)
PASE Total score(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.28, Spearman r = 0.23
QAPSE Mean habitual DEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) Pearson r = 0.32, Spearman r = 0.25
Elderly De Abajo (2001)[76] Acc (Caltrac) 3 days YPAS Total hr/week(Q) – activity units/day(Acc) Pearson r = 0.20 (P = 0.049)
TEE(Q) – activity units/day(Acc) Pearson r = 0.23 (P = 0.022)
YPAS summary index(Q) – activity units/day(Acc) Pearson r = 0.24 (P = 0.018)
Sitting(Q) – activity units/day(Acc) Pearson r = −0.06 (P = 0.54)
Elderly Dinger (2004)[77] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days PASE Total PASE score(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.43 (P = 0.001)
Elderly Dubbert (2004)[78] Acc (Tritrac R3D) 3 days 7DPAR TEE(Q) – counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.01)
Elderly Giles (2009)[79] Ped (Yamax) 7 days CHAMPS-MMSCV Volume T1: walking(Q) – step counts(Ped) Spearman r = 0.40 (P < 0.01)
Frequency T1: walking(Q) – step counts(Ped) Spearman r = 0.57 (P < 0.01)
Volume T2: walking(Q) – step counts(Ped) Spearman r = 0.53 (P < 0.01)
Frequency T2: walking(Q) – step counts(Ped) Spearman r = 0.60 (P < 0.01)
Elderly Hagiwara (2008)[80] Acc (Kenz Lifecorder) 3 days PASE Total PASE score(Q) – EE(Acc) Spearman r = 0.16 (P = 0.02)
Total PASE score(Q) – walking steps(Acc) Spearman r = 0.17 (P = 0.01)
Elderly Harada (2001)[81] ML (Mini-Mitter) 7 days CHAMPS EE(Q) – ankle counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.36 (P < 0.01)
EE(Q) – waist counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.42 (P < 0.001)
PASE Total PASE score(Q) – ankle counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.59 (P < 0.001)
Total PASE score(Q) – waist counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.52 (P < 0.001)
YPAS EE(Q) – ankle counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.46 (P < 0.001)
EE(Q) – waist counts(ML) Pearson r = 0.61 (P < 0.001)
Elderly Hurtig-Wennlöf (2010)[82] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-E Walking + MPA min/day(Q) – mean counts/min(Acc) Spearman r = 0.347 (P < 0.01) κ (95 % CI) = 0.448 (0.18;0.72), P < 0.001
VPA min/day(Q) – VPA counts/min(Acc) >4944 counts/min Spearman r = 0.369 (P < 0.01)
MPA min/day(Q) – MPA counts/min(Acc) 760-4944 counts/min Spearman r = 0.396 (P < 0.01)
Sitting min/day(Q) – sitting counts/min(Acc) <100 counts/min Spearman r = 0.277 (P < 0.05)
Elderly Kolbe-Alexander (2006)[83] Acc (ActiGraph) 7 days IPAQ-s Men: vigorous MET-min/week(Q) – high counts(Acc) ≥5725 counts/min Spearman r = 0.43 (P = 0.05)
Women: vigorous MET-min/week(Q) – high counts(Acc) ≥5725 counts/min Spearman r = 0.05
Men: moderate MET-min/week(Q) – moderate min(Acc) 1952-5724 counts/min Spearman r = 0.31 (P = 0.004)
Women: moderate MET-min/week(Q) – moderate min(Acc) 1952-5724 counts/min Spearman r = −0.09
Men: walking MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.57 (P = 0.00007)
Women: walking MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.42 (P = 0.006)
Men: sitting MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = −0.40 (P = 0.001)
Women: sitting MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = −0.35 (P = 0.005)
YPAS Men: total MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.54 (P = 0.0002)
Women: total MET-min/week(Q) – total counts(Acc) Spearman r = 0.13
Elderly Starling (1999)[84] DLW 10 day MLTPAQ Men: TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) MD (95 % LoA) = 752 ± 972 kcal/day
Women: TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) MD (95 % LoA) = 487 ± 698 kcal/day
YPAS Men: TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) MD (95 % LoA) = 104 ± 1414 kcal/day
Women: TEE(Q) – TEE(DLW) MD (95 % LoA) = 9 ± 972 kcal/day
Elderly Tomioka (2011)[85] Acc (Kenz Lifecorder) 2 weeks IPAQ-s Young old men: MET-min/week(Q) – MET-min/week(Acc) Spearman r = 0.42 (P < 0.01) κ (95 % CI) = 0.49 (0.34;0.64)
Young old women: MET-min/week(Q) – MET-min/week(Acc) Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.01) κ (95 % CI) = 0.39 (0.22;0.56)
Old old men: MET-min/week(Q) – MET-min/week(Acc) Spearman r = 0.53 (P < 0.01) κ (95 % CI) = 0.46 (0.29;0.63)
Old old women: MET-min/week(Q) – MET-min/week(Acc) Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.01) κ (95 % CI) = 0.47 (0.28;0.66)
Elderly Washburn (1999)[86] Acc (ActiGraph) 3 days PASE Total PASE score(Q) – mean counts/5 min epoch(Acc) Spearman r = 0.49 (P < 0.05)
Median Spearman r = 0.30 (youth: 0.25, adults: 0.30, elderly: 0.40)
Median Pearson r = 0.39 (youth: 0.38, adults: 0.46, elderly: 0.345)

Q1 = first completed questionnaire, Q2 = second completed questionnaire, Q3 = third completed questionnaire, r = correlation coefficient (rho), CI = Confidence Interval (lower;upper), κ = kappa (i.e. Cohen weighted kappa unless specified otherwise), LoA = Limits of Agreement, MD = Mean Difference, – = not stated.

Acc = Accelerometry [NB: ActiGraph (Model 7164) is successor of preceding accelerometer by MTI, formerly CSA]. Accelerometer names as used in the respective papers.

Affuso (2011): Sedentary mins = total minutes TV/video watching, computer/internet use, talking on phone, playing video/computer games.

Ainsworth (1999): MPA MET-min/week = energy expended in moderate-intensity occupational standing activities. 7DR-scores = scores of occupational activity only. EE = Energy Expenditure in kcal/day. All other associations between the TOQ and Caltrac scores were low and non significant.

Allor (2001): HR monitor brand not specified. EE = Energy Expenditure in kcal/hr.

Bonnefoy (2001): MLTPAQ total activity = light, moderate, heavy, household activity. YPAS summary index = sum of vigorous, walking, moving, standing, sitting scores. BAQ-mod questionnaire score = sum of household, sports, leisure activity scores. CAQ total activity = sum of walking, stairs, sports. 7DR total activity = weighted sum of sleep, light, moderate, hard, very hard activity. Dallosso-mod total score = weighted sum of walking standing, productive, leisure, muscle-loading activity. Enhanced LRC score = self report of usual activity. SUA MPA = six habitual moderate activities. SUA VPA = five habitual vigorous activites. PASE total score = activity weight*frequency across work-related leisure, household activities. QAPSE mean habitual DEE = activity weight*duration as daily energy expenditure.

Brown (2008): Frequency/week = frequency of total activity per week. Total min/week = minutes per week of total activity ≥3 METs. Total counts = all accelerometer recorded minutes.

Bull (2009): VPA/MPA = total vigorous/moderate intensity activity across all domains. Sedentary min/day = time spent sitting per day in minutes. Data categorized for studies in China (n = 215) and South Africa (n = 83).

Conway (2002): R2 = regression against PAR; explained variance is 10 % for 7DPAR and 14 % for S7DR. MD = mean differences ± SEM (percentages in parentheses) between each method and EE(DLW).

Cust (2008): Total MET-hr/week = total MET hours per week of non-occupational activity. Total PA index = cross-tabulation of level of occupational activity with combined recreational and household activities - inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active. Cambridge PA index = index based on occupational, cycling and sports activity (generally more intense activities).

Cust (2009): Results are stratified according to the group of participants reporting high or low confidence in recall of PA. High confidence = group of participants reporting high self-reported confidence in recall of physical activity. Low confidence = group of participants reporting low self-reported confidence in recall of physical activity. Remarkably, the correlation for the Cambridge index is slightly higher compared to the total PA index (MET-hrs) comparing accelerometry with the EPAQ. Total MET-hr/week(Acc) = total physical activity in MET-hr/week, calculated as light + moderate + vigorous activity (no sedentary time). Data are averages of three 7-day accelerometer periods.

De Abajo (2001): Total hr/week = total activity time. Activity units = kilocalorie score divided by resting metabolic rate. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in kJ/day. YPAS summary index = summed time for each activity, expressed in hours per week for each subject. Individual indices were created by multiplying a frequency score by a duration score and multiplying again by a weighting factor.

Dinger (2004): Total PASE score = weighted and summed score of individual items using the PASE scoring algorithm.

Duncan (2001): HRR = each subject's individual heart rate reserve (individual maximal MET capacity), where HRmax was determined from the graded exercise test and HRrest from the average of three measures after a 10-min seated test. Mean difference = 0.21, i.e. 0.21 hours overreported in PAR.

Eisenmann (2002): Total leisure activity score was calculated by multiplying the frequency of each category by the MET value and summing the score.

Ekelund (2005): MD = mean difference between objectively measured accelerometry time in MVPA and self-reported time in MVPA and walking.

Giles (2009): Volume T1/T2 = walking MET-min per week at first/second administration (T1/T2) of the CHAMPS. Frequency T1/T2 = walking sessions per week at first/second administration (T1/T2) of the CHAMPS.

Hagiwara (2008): PASE score was calculated by adding the score for each component determined on the basis of the time spent on each activity or the presence or absence of activity over the past 7 days. EE = Energy Expenditure divided by bodyweight in kcal/day/wt. Walking steps = daily number of walking steps measured by the Lifecorder accelerometer.

Hagströmer (2008): Data shown is data from the average intensity measured by the accelerometer.

Hagströmer (2006): Bland-Altman results from analysis for time spent in at least moderate physical activity (hr/week) as assessed by the IPAQ and measured using an activity monitor.

Hallal (2010): Total score(Q) = sum of minutes spent on MPA (including walking) per week, and twice the number of minutes spent on VPA, calculated from the IPAQ data. Total score(Acc) = accelerometer-based total score: moderate + vigorous-intensity counts.

Harada (2001): MiniLogger measures activity by counting the number of mercure switch closures, resulting in a 'count' of activity, over a predetermined time interval. EE = Energy Expenditure in kcal/week. Total PASE score = total score computed by 1) multiplying an activity frequency value from a conversion of hours per day in six categories of activity (e.g., moderate sports) by the respective weight and summing over these activities and 2) adding a weight to this summated score for each six other household activities if the activity was reported over the past 7 days.

Huang (2009): Results from Bland-Altman analysis are combined results for boys and girls (no results for sedentary time). Cut points used are Freedson age-based cut point, calculated as METs = 2.757 + (0.0015*counts per minute) - (0.0896*age[yr]) - (0.000038*counts per minute*age[yr]).

Hurtig-Wennlöf (2010): Agreement (κ) = Cohen's kappa for testing total agreement between the IPAQ-E and accelerometry.

InterAct Consortium (2011): Total PA index = cross-tabulation of level of occupational activity with combined recreational and household activities (MET-hr/week) - inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active. Cambridge index = index based on occupational, cycling and sports activity (h/week). Recreational index = index based on quartiles of the sum of walking, cycling, and sports (MET-hr/week). Fisher-transformed correlations were estimated for each country, and random effect meta-analysis methods were used to calculate the overall combined correlation of PAEE (kJ/kg/day) measured by the combined HR and movement sensor with the three PA indices from the EPAQ-s.

Jacobi (2009): Sedentary time = time spent watching TV/video or playing video games and time spent using a computer.

Kolbe-Alexander (2006): High counts = counts in high-intensity physical activity. Moderate min = time spent in moderate-intensity activity. Total counts = total counts for physical activity. Sitting = time spent sitting during a weekend day.

Kowalski (1997): PAQ-C score = calculated as the mean of the nine items, ranging from 1 to 5. Total counts = total counts measured by the Caltrac that reflect vertical acceleration of the body.

Kurtze (2008): EE = Energy Expenditure in MJ/day. PAL = average Physical Activity Level in 7 days, calculated as total EE divided by basal metabolic rate (BMR). Results from Bland-Altman analysis are combined results for total moderate, vigorous and walking activity.

MacFarlane (2007): Total MVPA min/week(Q) = total weighted minutes, calculated as moderate + (2*vigorous). R2, slope = result from regression analysis between the Bland-Altman differences and averages. %Bias, LoA = bias and limits of agreement expressed as percentage of the mean score.

Mahabir (2006): Duration of validation not stated, likely to be 14 days. EE = Energy Expenditure in kcal/day.

Martinez-Gomez (2010): Correlation coefficient = correlation between the two instruments for the 3 day mean.

Martinez-Gomez (2011): PAQ-A score = mean score of 8 activity items scored on a 5-point scale.

Matton (2007): EE = Energy Expenditure in kcal/week. PAL = Physical Activity Level, calculated as total EE divided by 168 (number of hours per week) and the reported body weight. TV hr/week = time per week spent watching television or videos or playing computer games; this time was recalled in the FPACQ and also directly coded in the written activity log of the accelerometer reflecting the same activity domain. T-test = paired t-test to compare the magnitude of activity variables calculated from the RT3 and FPACQ (absolute validity).

Nang (2011): VPA(Q) = 3–6 METs kcal/day, MPA(Q) = >6 METs kcal/day. VPA(Acc), MPA(Acc) = moderate and vigorous physical activity using cutoff points of 3 METs between light and moderate activity, and 6 METs between moderate and vigorous activity.

Nicaise (2011): PA variables from questionnaire assessed in MET-min/week. Steps(Acc) = number of steps taken per day (from the dual mode function).

Pettee-Gabriel (2009): Participants wore the accelerometer on average 6.3 ± 0.7 days/week or 30.7 ± 4.8 days during 35 days of observation and 14.4 ± 1.1 hours/day.

Philippaerts (1999): Total activity index = index calculated from the work, sport and leisure time index. ADMR = Average Daily Metabolic Rate in MJ/day. PAL = Physical Activity Level, determined as the ratio of ADMR (Average Daily Metabolic Rate) over SMR (Sleeping Metabolic Rate). 7 day index = index in kcal/day calculated from hours spent on vigorous (8 times resting metabolic rate) and moderate (4 times resting metabolic rate) activities and including sleeping time and the time spent on light activities (remaining time) during the last seven days. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in kcal/day.

Philippaerts (2001): Total activity index = index calculated from the work, sport and leisure time index. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in kcal/day.

Rangul (2008): Frequency = out of breath or sweat sessions per week. Duration = out of breath or sweat hours per week. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in MJ/week. PAL = Average Physical Activity Level for 7 days, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate.

Richardson (2001): Visit 10/11 = comparison for direct validation at study visit 10/11. Caltrac MET-min/day are obtained by dividing average 24-hour Caltrac readings (kcal/day) by the Caltrac's estimate of 24-hour resting energy expenditure and multiplying by 1440 min/day.

Scerpella (2002): 2x 3 Days = two measurement periods of 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Score calculations not specifically reported.

Schmidt (2006): Total activity score = activity score of all four domains, calculated as: (household/caregiving index*0.25 + occupational index*0.25 + active living index*0.25 + sports/exercise index*0.25)*4. Counts/min = mean accelerometer output per 1-min epoch, reflecting raw accelerometer output without any categorization according to activity intensity. Weighted activity score = activity score of all four domains, calculated as: (household/caregiving index*0.50 + occupational index*0.20 + active living index*0.25 + sports/exercise index*0.05)*4.

Slinde (2003): eMLTPAQ = extended MLTPAQ with additional questions about inactivity during leisure time. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in MJ/day. Sedentary min/day = time spent watching TV, videos and computer time.

Smitherman (2009): JPAC total score = total score calculated by summing the 4 index scores (active living, work, home/family/yard/garden, sport/exercise index) and can range from 3 to 20.

Starling (1999): TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in kcal/day.

Staten (2001): TEE = Total Energy Expenditure in kJ/day, -ic = average total energy expenditure with RMR measured by indirect calorimetry, -mif = average total energy expenditure with RMR calculated using the Mifflin et al. Equation, -met = average total energy expenditure with RMR calculated using the MET conversion.

Tomioka (2011): Young old = age 65–74, old old = age 75–89.

Treuth (2004): GAQ score yesterday = summary score estimated from 18 physical activities reliably recalled and frequently performed on the previous day (yesterday) or usually. The GAQ summary scores were computed as the total MET-weighted score divided by the number of nonmissing items. Average counts/min: all counts measured between 6 AM to 12 midnight averaged per minute. Baseline: n = 197, follow-up: n = 168.

Trinh (2009): Dry season is baseline (n = 135). Measurements in wet season (n = 116) were performed 2 months after baseline during dry season. Sedentary time = time spent sitting or reclining. Mean (95 % LoA) = log-transformed average difference between the time spent in MVPA measured with GPAQ (averaged over dry and wet season) and accelerometer with 95 % limits of agreement.

Troped (2007): MPA = number of days participating in ≥ 30 min of moderate PA during past 7 days. VPA = number of days participating in ≥ 20 min of vigorous PA during past 7 days. Sensitivity = probability of the YRBS items correctly classifying students as meeting recommendations. Specificity = probability of YRBS items correctly classifying students as not meeting the recommended level of PA. Kappa range = range of kappa coefficients between Actigraph measures (accumulated minutes, minutes in bouts ≥ 5 min, minutes in bouts ≥ 10 min, sustained minutes of PA) and the YRBS measure. Cut points used are based on the Freedson age-dependent equation; METs = 2.757 + (0.0015*counts per minute) - (0.0896*age[yr]) - (0.000038*counts per minute*age[yr]).

Washburn (1999): Total PASE score was computed by multiplying the amount of time spent in each activity (hours/week) or participation (yes/no) in an activity by the empirically derived item weights and summing over all activities. Accelerometer readings are averaged over five-minute epoch periods.

Washburn (2003): Interviewer reliability tested: ICC = 0.85. TEE = Total Energy Expenditure, including sleep, in kJ/day. PAEE = Physical Activity Energy Expenditure, i.e. light, moderate, hard and very hard activities, excluding sleep.

Weston (1997): 1 Day = 1 day after school hours. TEE = Total relative Energy Expenditure in kcal/kg/day. EE = mean estimated rate of Energy Expenditure in kcal/kg/hr for the entire after school period, derived from both mode and intensity. %HRR = mean percent of heart rate range. HRR was calculated as HRmax - HRrest, where HRmax was estimated from the formula 220 - age, and HRrest was taken from the mean of the five lowest 1-min heart rates recorded during the measurement period. All heart rates (HRraw) were converted to a %HRR using the formula HRraw/HRR*100 and averaged to produce mean %HRR.

Wolin (2008): 1-Min bout = accelerometer bout lasting at least 1 minute. 10-Min bout = accelerometer bout lasting at least 10 minutes.

Helmerhorst et al.

Helmerhorst et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 9:103   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-103

Open Data