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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

Shemane Murtagh1, David A Rowe1*, Mark A Elliott2, David McMinn3 and Norah M Nelson4

Author Affiliations

1 Physical Activity for Health Research Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

2 Traffic and Transport Psychology Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

3 Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK

4 School of Culture and Lifestyle, University of Derby, Buxton, UK

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International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012, 9:65  doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-65

Published: 30 May 2012

Abstract

Background

Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel.

Method

Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 59 % males) were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior.

Results

The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior.

Conclusions

The TPB significantly predicts children’s active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children’s intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit). Further research is needed to identify effective strategies for changing these antecedents of children’s active school travel.

Keywords:
Theory of planned behavior; Habit; Active school travel; Walking; Children