Table 1

Description of reviewed studies
Reference Design Sample Measures Significant Predictors Outcomes Analysis/Observations
Size (%F) Features Location
I. Exercise self-regulations and related measures
ThØgersen-Ntoumani & Ntoumanis, 2006 [52] Cross-sectional 375 (51) Exercisers (Mean 38.7 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) + amotivation (AMS) MV: IM (+) a, ID (+) a,b, INTR (+) a; EXT (−) a,b, AMOT (−) a Exercise stages of change a; Exercise relapses (fewer) b Multivariate logistic regressions, adjusting for sex and age; Manovas
Rose et al., 2005 [56] Cross-sectional 184 (55) Healthy adults (17–60 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (+) a, ID (+) , INTR (+) EXT (−) Exercise stages of change Discriminant function analysis (IM was redundant); Manovas a
Ingledew et al., 2009 [79] Cross-sectional 251 (52) University Students (Mean 19.5 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (+),ID (+),INTR (n.s) EXT (n.s) Self-reported exercise (measure analogous to LTEQ) Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS); Mediation analysis
Edmunds et al., 2006 [44] Cross-sectional 369 (52) Healthy individuals (Mean 31.9 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (n.s.), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (−) Self-reported exercise (total and strenuous PA; LTEQ) Multiple regressions; Mediation analysis. No associations with mild/moderately intense PA.
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.)
Wilson et al., 2006 [85] Cross-sectional 139 (64) Undergraduate students (Mean 19.5 yr) Canada Exercise extrinsic self-regulations (BREQ) and Integrated Regulation scale (INTEG) MV: INTEG (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: INTEG (+), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.)
McDonough et al., 2007 [50] Cross-sectional 558 (72) Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; SEM; Mediation analysis. Only RAI was tested in multivariate analysis.
BIV: RAI (+), IM (n.s.), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.)
Daley & Duda, 2006 [55] Cross-sectional 409 (61) Undergraduate students (19.9 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (+), ID (++), INTR (+); EXT (− M); AMOT (− F) Exercise stages of change; Physical activity status (from inactive to active) Discriminant function analysis
Wilson et al., 2004 [45] Cross-sectional 276 (64) Undergraduate students (20.5 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (n.s.); ID (+), INTR (+ F; - M), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regressions analysis
BIV: IM (+); ID (+), INTR (+ F), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.)
Markland, 2009 [9] Cross-sectional 102 F Healthy individuals (Mean 29.2 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (+), ID (+), AMOT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression/mediation (Preacher & Hayes): INTR and EXT not analyzed.
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (−)
Ingledew & Markland, 2008 [46] Cross-sectional 252 (48) Office workers (Mean 40 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (n.s.), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−) Self-reported exercise (measure analogous to LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; SEM
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−)
Peddle et al., 2008 [43] Cross-sectional 413 (46) Colorectal cancer survivors (Mean 60 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (n.s.), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Path analysis
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (−)
Landry & Solmon, 2004 [86] Cross-sectional 105 F African-American (Mean 56 yr) USA Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (−), EXT (n.s.) Exercise stages of change; exercise categories Anovas; Discriminant function analysis
BIV: RAI (+); IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.)
Milne et al., 2008 [87] Cross-sectional 558 F Breast cancer survivors (Mean 59 yr) Australia Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); exercise categories (meeting vs. not meeting guidelines) Anovas; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−), AMOT (−)
Mullan & Markland, 1997 [57] Cross-sectional 314 (49.7) Healthy individuals (Mean 35–40 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.) Exercise stages of change Anova (RAI was analyzed); Discriminant function analysis;
BIV: RAI (+)
Lewis & Sutton, 2011 [48] Cross-sectional 100 (50) 95% undergraduates, members of a university gym; age not specified UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (+); ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−), AMOT (n.s.) Exercise frequency Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: IM (+); ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (−), AMOT (−)
Markland & Tobin, 2010 [88] Cross-sectional 133 F Exercise referral scheme clients (Mean 54.5 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Wilson et al., 2002 [49] Cross-sectional 500 (81) Aerobic exercisers (Mean 34 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (−) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations. Differences between PA intensities.
Sebire et al., 2009 [19] Cross-sectional 410 (71) Exercisers (Mean 41.4 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: RAI (+)
Brickell & Chatzisarantis, 2007 [42] Cross-sectional 252 (61) College students (Mean 23.2 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (n.s.), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Multiple regression analysis
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s)
Edmunds et al., 2006 [51] Cross-sectional 339 (53) Symptomatic vs asymptomatic for exercise dependence (Mean 32.1 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) and Integrated Regulation scale (INTEG) MV: Symptomatic: INTR (+ tendency); Asymptomatic: ID (+). Remaining variables not significant. Self-reported exercise (total and strenuous PA; LTEQ) Multiple regressions. No associations with moderately intense PA.
Moreno et al., 2007 [89] Cross-sectional 561 (53) Healthy adults (Mean 31.8 yr) Spain Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: IM (n.s.), ID (−), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−), AMOT (−) Exercise duration (0-45 min vs. 45-60 min vs. > 60 min) Manovas
Hall et al., 2010 [90] Cross-sectional 470 (54) Adults (Mean 44.9 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2); Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (−) Exercise status (active vs. inactive) Anovas
Standage et al., 2008 [91] Cross-sectional 52 (50) University students (Mean 22 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations; Autonomous and controlled motivations (BREQ)

MV: AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.)

BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s), AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.)

Accelerometry Bivariate correlations; Sequential regression analysis
Duncan et al., 2010 [41] Cross-sectional 1079 (57) Regular exercisers (Mean 24.2 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) + Integrated reg. scale MV: IM (n.s.), INTEG (+), ID (+)*, INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s), AMOT (n.s) * PA frequency; PA intensity; PA duration (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: IM (+), INTEG (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (− F)*, AMOT (−)
Sorensen et al. 2006 [54] cross-sectional 109 (59) Psychiatric patients (Mean age group 31–49 yr) Norway Exercise regulations (based on BREQ) MV: IM (+), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise level Bivariate correlations; Logistic regressions
BIV: IM (+), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−)
Puente & Anshel, 2010 [77] Cross-sectional 238 (57) College students (Mean 20.4 yr) USA Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E) MV: RAI (+) Exercise frequency Bivariate correlations; SEM
BIV: RAI (+)
Halvary et al., 2009 [76] Cross-sectional 190 (44) Healthy adults (Mean 21.8 yr) Norway Autonomous motivation (SRQ) MV: AutMot (+) Exercise frequency and duration Bivariate correlations; SEM; Mediation analysis
BIV: AutMot (+)
Wilson et al., 2006 [29] Cross-sectional 220; 220 (56) Cancer survivors (Mean 60–64 yr) vs non-cancer (Mean 50 yr) Canada Autonomous and controlled motivation (TSRQ-PA) MV: AutMot (+), CtMot (−) in both samples Self-reported exercise (min/wk of MVPA) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.) in both samples
Hurkmans et al., 2010 [92] Cross-sectional 271 (66) Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (Mean 62 yr) Netherlands Exercise self-regulations (TSRQ-PA). Adated RAI. MV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (SQUASH) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: RAI (+)
Lutz et al., 2008 [93] Cross-sectional 535 (60) University students (Mean 20 yr) USA Exercise self-regulations (EMS). Adapted RAI. MV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlation; Preacher & Hayes mediation analysis
BIV: RAI (+)
Wininger, 2007 [28] Cross-sectional 143; 58 (76) Undergraduates (Mean 21–22 yr) USA Exercise self-regulations (EMS) MV *: IM (+), INTEG (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (−) * Exercise stages of change; ** Distance walked on treadmill Bivariate correlations; Manovas
BIV **: IM experience sensations (+), INTEG (n.s.), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (−)
Craike, M., 2008 [47] Cross-sectional 248 (53) Healthy adults (Mean 48 yr) Australia Exercise self-regulations (based on BREQ and EMS) MV: IM (+), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−) Self-reported LTPA SEM
Tsorbatzoudis et al., 2006 [94] Cross-sectional 257 (55) Healthy adults (Mean 31 yr) Greece Exercise self-regulations (SMS) MV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (−), AMOT (−) Exercise frequency (from the least to the most frequent) Multivariate analysis of variance; multiple regressions
Chatzisarantis & Biddle, 1998 [95] Cross-sectional 102 (50) University employees (Mean 40 yr) UK Behavioral regulations for PA (SMS adaptation) MV: Autonomous group (vs controlled) based on RAI scores (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) SEM
Matsumoto & Takenaka, 2004 [96] Cross-sectional 486 (53) Healthy individuals (Mean 45 yr) Japan Exercise self-regulations (SDMS); profiles of self-determination BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.) AMOT (−); Self-determined profile (+) Exercise stages of change Bivariate correlations and cluster analysis
McNeill et al., 2006 [97] Cross-sectional 910 (80) Healthy individuals (Mean 33 yr) USA Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (MPA) MV: Intrinsic motivation (+); Extrinsic motivation for social pressure Self-reported exercise (minutes of walking, and MVPA) SEM. Indirectly through self-efficacy.
Russell & Bray, 2009 [98] Cross-sectional and prospective (6 + 6wk) 68 (13) Cardiac rehabilitation outpatients (Mean 64.9 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (7Day-PAR) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: RAI (+)
Russell & Bray, 2010 [99] Cross-sectional and Observational (14wk) 53 M Exercise cardiac rehabilitation patients (Mean 62.8 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E) MV: AutMot (+) Exercise frequency; duration (+); volume (+) – 7Day-PAR Bivariate correlations; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.)
Fortier et al., 2009 [100] Prospective (6mo) 149 F Healthy adults (Mean 51.8 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (TSRQ-adapted) MV: AutMot (n.s.) Duration, Frequency, and Energy Expenditure (CHAMPS) Bivariate correlations; Mediation/regression analysis
BIV: AutMot (n.s.), CtMot (n.s.)
Rodgers et al., 2010 [31] Prospective 1572 (60) Initiate vs. long-term exercisers (Mean 22–51 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (−) overtime for initiates, but < to regular exercisers Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); Initiate vs. long-term exercisers Manovas. Total N from 6 samples: initiates (60, 134, 38, 84), regular exercisers (202, 1054)
Barbeau et al., 2009 [101] Prospective (1mo) 118 (65) Healthy adults (Mean 19 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) MV: AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Path analysis
BIV: AutMot (+), CtMot (n.s.)
Hagger et al., 2006 [35] Prospective (4wk) 261 (64) University students (Mean 24.9 yr) UK Relative autonomy index (based on PLOC scale) BIV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (frequency) Bivariate correlations; SEM
Hagger et al., 2006 [34] Prospective (4 wk) 261 (64) Exercise sample of university students (Mean 24.9 yr) UK Relative autonomy index (based on PLOC Scale) BIV: RAI (+) Self-reported exercise (frequency) Bivariate correlations
Kwan et al., 2011[53] Prospective (4 wk) 104 (58) Undergraduate students; active (Mean 18.2 yr) USA Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) BIV: IM (+), ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.), AMOT (n.s.), RAI (n.s) Self-reported exercise (online diary) Bivariate correlations
Edmunds et al., 2007 [38] Prospective (uncontrolled intervention) (3mo) 49 (84) Overweight/Obese patients (Mean BMI: 38.8; Mean 45 yr) on an exercise scheme UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2); Integrated regulation subscale (EMS) MV: IM (n.s.), INTEG (+), ID (−)*, INTR (+)*, EXT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); Bivariate correlations; Multilevel regression analysis.* ID and INTR multivariate outcomes resulted from net suppression; thus, not considered by the authors.
BIV: ID (+), INTR (−)
Wilson et al., 2003 [58] Experimental (12wk) 53 (83) Adults (Mean 41.8 yr; BMI: 19.9 ± 3.0 kg/m2) Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: IM (+), ID (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis. IM and ID increased from pre- to post-exercise program
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.)
Sweet et al., 2009 [102] Experimental (12mo) 234 (38) Inactive with type 2 diabetes (Mean 53 yr) on an exercise program Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ) MV: AutMot (+) Amount of PA (kcal/month) Bivariate correlations; Regression/Mediation analysis
BIV: AutMot (+)
Fortier et al., 2011 [36] Experimental (13wk); RCT 120 (69) Inactive patients (Mean 47.3 yr): intensive vs. brief PA intervention Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2) BIV: IM, ID, INTR, EXT, and RAI were not significant predictors Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Fortier et al., 2007 [17] Experimental (13wk); RCT 120 (69) Autonomy supportive vs brief PA counseling (Mean 47.3 yr) Canada Treatment self-regulations (TSRQ-PA) MV: AutMot (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Path/Mediation analysis
BIV: AutMot (n.s.)
Levy & Cardinal, 2004 [40] Experimental (2mo); RCT 185 (68) Adults (Mean 46.8 yr); SDT-based mail intervention vs. controls USA Exercise self-regulations (EMS) MV: IM, INTEG, ID, INTR, EXT, and AMOT were not significant predictors Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Manovas with repeated measures
Mildestvedt et al., 2008 [68] Experimental (4wk); RCT 176 (22) Cardiac rehabilitation patients (Mean 56 yr): SDT-based vs standard rehab treatment Norway Autonomous and controlled motivations (TSRQ) BIV: AutMot (+); CtMot (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (composite score); exercise intensity ANOVAs with repeated measures
Silva et al., 2010 [33] Experimental (12mo); RCT 239 F OW/Obese women (Mean 38 yr); SDT-treatment vs controls Portugal Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E) MV: IM (+)*, ID (n.s.), INTR (n.s.), EXT (n.s.) Self-reported exercise: MVPA * (7-day PAR); lifestyle PA index Bivariate correlations; PLS analysis; Mediation analysis
BIV: IM (+), ID (+), INTR (+), EXT (n.s.)
Silva et al., 2010 [32] Experimental (1 yr + 2y follow-up); RCT 221 F OW/Obese women (Mean 38 yr); SDT-treatment vs controls Portugal Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E) at 1 yr and 2 yr MV: AutMot 2 yr (+), INTR 2 yr (n.s.), EXT 2 yr (n.s.) 2-yr self-reported exercise: MVPA (7-day PAR) Bivariate correlations; PLS analysis; Mediation analysis
BIV: AutMot 1 and 2 yr (+), INTR 2 yr (+), EXT 2 yr (n.s.)
II. Exercise-related psychological need satisfaction
Puente & Anshel, 2010 [77] Cross-sectional 238 (57) College students (Mean 20.4 yr) USA Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS); Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) MV: Competence (+) Exercise frequency Bivariate correlations; SEM; Relatedness not measured.
BIV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+)
Edmunds et al., 2006 [44] Cross-sectional 369 (52) Healthy individuals (Mean 31.9 yr) UK Psychological need satisfaction (BNSWS adapted) MV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+), Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (total and strenuous PA; LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Regression analysis; mediation analysis
BIV: Autonomy (+), Competence (+), Relatedness (+)
Edmunds et al., 2006 [51] Cross-sectional 339 (53) Symptomatic vs asymptomatic for exercise dependence (Mean 32.1 yr) UK Psychological need satisfaction (BNSWS adapted) BIV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+), Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (total and strenuous PA; LTEQ) Bivariate correlations. No associations with mild/moderately intense PA
Peddle et al., 2008 [43] Cross-sectional 413 (46) Colorectal cancer survivors (Mean 60 yr) Canada Psychological need satisfaction (PNSE) BIV: Autonomy (+), Competence (+), Relatedness (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
McDonough et al., 2007 [50] Cross-sectional 558 (72) Recreational dragon boat paddlers (Mean 45 yr) Canada Exercise need satisfaction (PNSE) MV: Autonomy (−), Competence (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; SEM
BIV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+), Relatedness (n.s.)
Sebire et al., 2009 [19] Cross-sectional 410 (71) Exercisers (Mean 41.4 yr) UK Exercise need satisfaction (PNSE) BIV: Exercise need satisfaction (composite score) (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Milne et al., 2008 [87] Cross-sectional 558 F Breast cancer survivors (Mean 59 yr) Australia Perceived competence (PCS) MV: Competence (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); Exercise categories (meeting vs. not meeting guidelines) Anovas; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: Competence (+)
Halvary et al., 2009 [76] Cross-sectional 190 (44) Healthy adults (Mean 21.8 yr) Norway Perceived competence (PCS) MV: Competence (n.s.) Exercise frequency and duration Bivariate correlations; SEM/Mediation analysis
BIV: Competence (+)
Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006 [103] Cross-sectional 508 (50) Greek adults (Mean 30 yr) Greece Psychological needs satisfaction in exercise (BPNES) MV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+); Relatedness (n.s.) Exercise frequency SEM
Markland & Tobin, 2010 [88] Cross-sectional 133 F Exercise referral scheme clients UK Autonomy need (LCE); Perceived Competence (IMI); Relatedness (8-item scale) BIV: Autonomy (+), Competence (+), Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Russell & Bray, 2009 [98] Cross-sectional and prospective (6 + 6wk) 68 (13) Cardiac rehabilitation outpatients (Mean 64.9 yr) Canada Exercise need satisfaction (PNSE) BIV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (+)*, Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (7Day-PAR) at 3wk and 6wk* follow-up Bivariate correlations
Barbeau et al., 2009 [101] Prospective (1mo) 118 (65) Healthy adults (Mean 19 yr) Canada Exercise need satisfaction (PNSES) BIV: Autonomy (+), Competence (+), Relatedness (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Hagger et al., 2006 [34] Prospective (4 wk) 261 (64) Exercise sample of university students (Mean 24.9 yr) UK Psychological need satisfaction BIV: Psychological need satisfaction (composite score) (+) Self-reported exercise (frequency). Bivariate correlations
Edmunds et al., 2007 [38] Prospective (uncontrolled intervention) (3mo) 49 (84) OW/Obese patients (BMI: 38.75; Mean 45 yr) UK Psychological need satisfaction (PNSS) MV: Autonomy (n.s.), Competence (n.s.); Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); (Increase in relatedness overtime) Multilevel regression analysis; Paired T-tests
Fortier et al., 2007 [17] Experimental (13 wk); RCT 120 (69) Healthy adults (Mean 47.3 yr) Canada Perceived Competence (PCES) MV: Competence (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Path analysis; Mediation analysis
Levy & Cardinal, 2004 [40] Experimental (2mo); RCT 185 (68) Adults (Mean 46.8 yr); SDT-based mail intervention vs. controls USA Perceived autonomy satisfaction (LCE) MV: Autonomy (+ F), Competence (n.s.), Relatedness (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Manovas with repeated measures
Silva et al., 2010 [33] Experimental (12mo); RCT 239 F OW/Obese women (Mean BMI: 31.5; Mean 38 y); SDT-based weight loss treatment vs controls Portugal Perceived autonomy satisfaction (LCE); Competence (IMI) BIV: Autonomy (+), Competence (+) Self-reported exercise: MVPA (7-day PAR); lifestyle PA index Bivariate correlations
III. Exercise motives and related measures
Ingledew et al., 2009 [79] Cross-sectional 251 (52) University Students (Mean 19.5 yr) UK Exercise motives (EMI-2) MV: Intrinsic motives: Stress management (+), Affiliation (+), Challenge (+); Extrinsic: Health/fitness (+); body-related (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (measure analogous to LTEQ) Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS); Mediation analysis
Ingledew & Markland, 2008 [46] Cross-sectional 252 (48) Office workers (Mean 40 yr) UK Exercise motives (EMI-2) BIV: Intrinsic motives (n.s.), Extrinsic motives: health/fitness (+) and body-related (−) Self-reported exercise (measure analogous to LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Frederick & Ryan, 1993 [59] Cross-sectional 376 (64) Healthy individuals (Mean 39 yr) USA Exercise motives (MPAM) Intrinsic motives: interest/enjoyment (+); competence (+); Extrinsic motives: body-related (+) Self-reported exercise (levels, intensity) Differences between PA categories; correlations and Manovas
Frederick et al., 1996 [104] Cross-sectional 118 (68) College students (Mean 22 yr) USA Exercise motives (MPAM-r) MV: Extrinsic: body-related (+ M) Self-reported exercise: frequency, volume Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: Intrinsic motives (+ F), Extrinsic: body-related (+ M)
Buckworth et al., 2007 [30] a Cross-sectional 184;220 (60) University students (Mean 18–22 yr) USA Exercise motives (EMI and IMI; total and subscales) Intrinsic motives (except choice) (+); Extrinsic motives (except tangible rewards) (+) Exercise stages of change Anovas and profile analysis
Sebire et al., 2009 [19] Cross-sectional 400 (73) Exercisers (Mean 41.4 yr) UK Exercise goal content (GCEQ) MV: Intrinsic motives (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: Intrinsic motives (+)
Segar et al., 2006 [64] Cross-sectional 59 F Healthy adults (Mean 45.6 yr) USA Body and non-body shape motives for exercise (via inductive, qualitative methods) BIV: Body motives (−); non-body shape motives (+). Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Hierarchical regression analysis
Sit et al., 2008 [105] Cross-sectional 360 F Chinese adults (30–59 yr) China Exercise motives (MPAM-r) MV: Intrinsic motives : competence/challenge (+), interest/enjoyment (+); Extrinsic: fitness/health (+); appearance (n.s.) Exercise stages of change Manovas
Davey et al., 2009 [106] Cross-sectional 134 (66) Employees (estimated mean age between 25–44 yr) New Zeland Exercise motives (based on MPAM-r and SMS) MV: Intrinsic motives: enjoyment (+), competence/challenge (+); Extrinsic: appearance (−); Fitness (n.s.) Total number of steps in 3wk Multiple regression analysis
Segar et al., 2008 [65] Prospective 156 F Healthy women (Mean 49.3 yr) USA Extrinsic and Intrinsic goals (based on a list of goals and on cluster analysis) MV: Intrinsic goals (+); Extrinsic goals: weight maintenance/toning (−); health benefits (−) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Linear mixed model
Ingledew et al., 1998 [107] Prospective (3mo) 425 (34) Government employees (Mean 40 yr) UK Exercise motives (EMI-2) MV: Intrinsic motives: enjoyment (+); Extrinsic: body-related (+ action; - maintenance); health pressures (+ preparation; - action/maintenance) Exercise stages of change Discriminant function analysis
Ryan et al., 1997 [27] a Prospective (10wk) 40 (80) University students and employees (Mean 21 yr) USA Exercise motives (MPAM) MV: Intrinsic motives: enjoyment (+), competence (+); body-related motives (n.s.) Reduced dropout and attendance to exercise classes Manovas and multiple regressions
Ryan et al., 1997 [27] b Prospective (10wk) 155 (57) New fitness center members (Mean 19.5 yr) USA Exercise motives (MPAM-R) MV: Intrinsic motives: enjoyment (+), competence (+), social interactions (+); Extrinsic motives: fitness (n.s.), appearance (n.s.) Attendance to and duration of exercise workout Manovas and multiple regressions
Buckworth et al., 2007 [30] b Experimental (10wk) 142 (66) College Students (Mean 21.3 yr) USA Exercise motives (EMI and IMI); BIV: Intrinsic motives: effort/competence (+) and interest/enjoyment (+); Extrinsic motives: appearance (+) * Exercise patterns (from stable inactive to stable active); Activity vs. Lecture (no activity) Classes * Anovas with repeated measures.
IV. Perceived need support
Peddle et al., 2008 [43] Cross-sectional 413 (46) Colorectal cancer survivors (Mean 60 yr) Canada Perceived need support (PAS, based on HCCQ-short) BIV: Need support (+) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Milne et al., 2008 [87] Cross-sectional 558 F Breast cancer survivors (Mean 59 yr) Australia Perceived need support (mHCCQ)

MV: Need support (+)

BIV: Need support (+)

Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); exercise categories (meeting vs. not meeting guidelines) Anovas; Hierarchical regression analysis
Hurkmans et al., 2010 [92] Cross-sectional 271 (66) Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (Mean 62 yr) Netherlands Perceived need support (HCCQ-mod) MV: Need support (n.s.) Self-reported PA (SQUASH) Bivariate correlations; Multiple regression analysis
BIV: Need support (n.s.)
Halvary et al., 2009 [76] Cross-sectional 190 (44) Healthy adults (Mean 21.8 yr) Norway Perceived need support (SCQ based on HCCQ) BIV: Need support (+) Exercise frequency and duration Bivariate correlations
Markland & Tobin, 2010 [88] Cross-sectional 133 F Exercise referral scheme clients UK Need support (15-item scale) BIV: Need support (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Puente & Anshel, 2010 [77] Cross-sectional 238 (57) College students (Mean 20.4 yr) USA Exercise need support (SCQ) BIV: Need support (+) Exercise frequency Bivariate correlations
Russel & Bray, 2010 [99] Cross-sectional and prospective (14wk) 53 M Exercise cardiac rehabilitation patients (Mean 62.8 yr) Canada Perceived need support (HCCQ-short) MV: Need support (n.s.) Exercise frequency; duration (+); volume – 7Day-PAR Bivariate correlations; Hierarchical regression analysis
BIV: Need support (+)
Levy et al., 2008 [108] Prospective (8-10wk) 70 (37) Injured exercisers in rehabilitation (Mean 33 yr; 69% recreational) UK Perceived need support (HCCQ) MV: Need support (+) a, c Exercise adherence: a clinical, b home-based; c attendance Bivariate correlations; Manovas
BIV: Need support (+) a, c
Edmunds et al., 2007 [38] Uncontrolled Prospective (3mo) 49 (84) OW/Obese patients (BMI: 38.75; Mean 45 yr) on an exercise scheme UK Perceived need support (HCCQ) MV: Need support (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (LTEQ); Multilevel regression analysis
Fortier et al., 2007 [17] Experimental (13 wk); RCT 120 (69) Autonomy supportive vs. brief PA counseling (Mean 47.3 yr) Canada Perceived need support (HCCQ) BIV: Need support Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Bivariate correlations
Mildestvedt et al., 2008 [68] Experimental (4wk); RCT 176 (22) Cardiac rehabilitation patients (Mean 56 yr): autonomy supportive vs. standard rehab Norway Perceived need support (mHCCQ) MV: Need support (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (composite score); exercise intensity Manovas with repeated measures
Silva et al., 2010 [33] Experimental (12mo); RCT 239 F OW/Obese women (Mean BMI: 31.5; Mean 38 y): SDT-based WL treatment vs. controls Portugal Perceived need support (HCCQ) MV: Need support (+) Self-reported exercise: MVPA (7-day PAR); lifestyle PA index Bivariate correlations; PLS/mediation analysis
BIV: Need support (+)
Silva et al., 2010 [32] Experimental (1 yr + 2y follow-up); RCT 221 F OW/Obese women (Mean BMI: 31.5; Mean 38 y): SDT-based WL treatment vs. controls Portugal Perceived need support (HCCQ) BIV: Need support (+) Self-reported exercise: MVPA (7-day PAR) Bivariate correlations
V. Exercise Causality Orientations
Rose et al., 2005 [56] Cross-sectional 375 (51) Volunteers (17–60 yr) UK Exercise causality orientations (ECOS) MV: Autonomy O. (+), Controlling O. (− F), and Impersonal O. (−) Exercise stages of change Discriminant function analysis. Gender differences
Kwan et al., 2011[53] Prospective (4 wk) 104 (58) Undergraduate students; active (Mean 18.2 yr) USA Exercise causality orientations (ECOS) BIV: Autonomy O. (+), Controlling O. (−), and Impersonal O. (n.s.) Self-reported exercise (online diary) Bivariate correlations
VI. SDT-based Interventions and other SDT-related measures
Edmunds et al., 2008 [39] Experimental (10wk) 55 F Exercisers (Mean 21 yr) UK Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2); Need support (PESS); Basic needs (PNSS); Exercise attendance Groups: SDT-based exercise classes vs. traditional exercise classes Higher perceived need support, autonomy and relatedness needs; Competence (+), INTRO (+) and amotivation (−) overtime for both groups Higher exercise attendance Multilevel regression analysis
Fortier et al., 2007 [17] Experimental (13wk); RCT 120 (69) Healthy adults (Mean 47.3 yr) Canada Exercise self-regulations (TSRQ-PA); Perceived Competence (PCES); Need Support (HCCQ); Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Groups: autonomy supportive vs. brief PA counseling Higher perceived need support, autonomous motivation overtime Higher reported exercise overtime Ancovas
Fortier et al., 2011 [36] Experimental (13wk); RCT 120 (69) Inactive primary care patients (Mean 47.3 yr): intensive vs. brief PA counseling intervention Canada Exercise self-regulations (BREQ-2); Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Groups: autonomy supportive - intensive vs. brief PA counseling Higher perceived need support, autonomous motivation overtime Higher reported exercise overtime Ancovas
Mildestvedt et al., 2008 [68] Experimental (4wk); RCT 176 (22) Cardiac rehabilitation patients (Mean 56 yr): autonomy supportive vs. standard rehab Norway Exercise self-regulations (TSRQ); Perceived need support (mHCCQ); Self-reported exercise Groups: autonomy supportive vs. standard rehab No significant differences No significant differences Anovas with repeated measures
Levy & Cardinal, 2004 [40] Experimental (2mo); RCT 185 (68) Adults (Mean 46.8 yr); SDT-based mail intervention vs. controls USA Exercise self-regulations (EMS); Perceptions of autonomy (LCE); Competence (PSPP); Self-reported exercise (LTEQ) Groups: SDT-based mail vs. controls Women only: increase in perception of autonomy Women only: increase self-reported exercise Anovas with repeated measures
Silva et al., 2010 [18] Experimental (12mo); RCT 239 F OW/Obese women (Mean BMI: 31.5; Mean 38 y); RCT Portugal Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E); Need support (HCCQ); Perceived autonomy (LCE); Self-reported exercise (MVPA, lifestyle, steps) Groups: SDT-based weight loss treatment vs. controls Higher need supportive climate, autonomy satisfaction, IM, IDENT, INTRO Higher reported exercise (all measures) Effect sizes; T-tests
Silva et al., 2011 [32] Experimental (1 yr + 2y follow-up); RCT 221 F OW/Obese women (Mean BMI: 31.5; Mean 38 y); RCT Portugal Exercise self-regulations (SRQ-E) at 1 yr and 2 yr; Need support (HCCQ); Self-reported exercise (MVPA) Groups: SDT-based weight loss treatment vs. controls Higher 2-yr EXT, INTRO and autonomous regulations Higher 2-yr reported exercise Effect sizes; T-tests

Legend: F, female; M, male ; BIV, uni/bivariate associations; MV, multivariate associations; IM, intrinsic motivation; INTEG, integrated regulation; ID, identified regulation; INTR, introjected regulation; EXT, external regulation; AMOT, amotivation; RAI, relative autonomy index; AutMot, autonomous motivations; CtMot, controlled motivations; Autonomy O., autonomy orientation; Controlling O., controlling orientation; Impersonal O., impersonal orientation; (+), positive association; (-), negative association; (n.s.), not significant. Superscript letters are used to signal associations between specific predictors and outcomes (check the ‘significant predictors’ and ‘outcomes’ columns when applied). (*) is used when specific comments need to be made (check the ‘observations’ column on those cases).

Teixeira et al.

Teixeira et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 9:78   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-78

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