Screen time use in children under 3 years old: a systematic review of correlates
1 Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, 60 Haven Avenue, B-2 Room 211, New York, NY 10032, USA
2 University of Illinois - Champaign Urbana, 402 N Prairie St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013, 10:102 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-102Published: 23 August 2013
A large percentage (68%) of children under age 3 use screen media, such as television, DVDs and video games, on a daily basis. Research suggests that increased screen time in young children is linked to negative health outcomes, including increased BMI, decreased cognitive and language development and reduced academic success. Reviews on correlates of screen time for young children have included preschool age children and children up to age 7; however, none have focused specifically on correlates among infants and toddlers. As research suggests that screen media use increases with age, examining correlates of early media exposure is essential to reducing exposure later in life. Thus, this paper systemically reviews literature published between January 1999 and January 2013 on correlates of screen time among children between 0 and 36 months of age.
Two methods were used to conduct this review: (1) Computerized searches of databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, Medline); and (2) Reference sections of existing reviews and primary studies. Inclusion criteria were: (1) The article included separate data for children 36 months and younger, (2) English language, (3) peer reviewed article, (4) analysis reported for screen viewing as a dependent variable, (5) original research article and, (6) examined correlates or associations between screen time and other demographic, contextual or behavioral variables. Articles were compiled between 2011 and 2013 and evaluation occurred in 2012 and 2013.
The literature search identified 29 studies that met inclusion criteria. These studies investigated a total of 33 potential correlates, which were examined in this review. Findings suggest demographic variables most commonly correlated with high screen time among infants and toddlers are child’s age (older) and race/ethnicity (minority). Child BMI, maternal distress/depression, television viewing time of the mother and cognitive stimulation in the home environment were also associated with screen media use. Studies reported that child sex, first born status, paternal education, non-English speaking family, two-parent household, number of children in the home and non-parental childcare were not associated with screen time among children aged 0–36 months. Associations were unclear (fewer than 60% of studies report an association) for maternal age, maternal education and household income. The remaining correlates were investigated in fewer than three studies and thus not coded for an association.
The correlates identified in this study point to avenues for intervention to reduce screen time use in young children. However, further research is necessary to explore a number of environmental, socio-cultural and behavioral correlates that are under-examined in this population and may further inform prevention and intervention strategies.