Table 3

Summary of observational studies with sedentary behaviour and physical activity outcomes
Author (Year), Country Sample characteristics (Number, Age, % Male) Outcome variables Home physical and social environment independent variables Adjustments Internal validity External validity
House & yard PA equipment Media equipment BR media equipment Family rules Family support Family behaviour
Sedentary and Physical Activity Outcome - Cross-Sectional Studies
Hume (2005); Aust.A B[73] n=127; 10 yrs, 52% Sedentary time; 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M Not included (NS); stratified by sex + +
LPA; 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,0M
MPA (Acc) (V, R) 0F,0M 0F,0M 0F,+M
Roemmich (2007); USA [74] n=88; 8–12 yrs; 50% TV time (SR & PR); + Age, SES, % overweight, Acc wear time (PA), gender + +
PA counts; 0
MVPA time (Acc) (V) 0
Rosenberg (2010); USA [75] n=189; 12–18 yrs; 49% n=116; 5–11 yrs; 48% TV time; - + + Age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, no. of children; stratified by age; analysed by PR/SR + +
Sedentary time (SR & PR); 0 + +
MVPA time (SR & PR) (V) + 0 0
Salmon (2005); Aust. [76] n=878; 10–12 yrs; M/F TV Time (PR) (V,R); 0F,0M 0F,0M -F,-M 0F,+M +F,+M Maternal ed., school clustering, weight (girls TV model); stratified by gender ++ ++
PA counts (low) (Acc) (V) 0F,+/-M 0F,0M -F,+M +F,0M +F,+M
Sirard (2010); USAC[77] n=575; 10–17 yrs; 49% Sedentary time (Acc) (V,R); - + 0 Gender, age, ethnicity, parent ed., pubertal status, people in home, parent BMI, mth of data collection, free lunch, study cohort, school clustering; stratified by gender (screen time) + +
Screen time (SR); -F,0M +F,0M 0F,0M
MVPA time (Acc) (V) + 0 0
Sedentary and Physical Activity Outcome - Longitudinal Studies
Delmas (2007); France [78] n=379, 12 yrs; 51% TV time; 0F,+M School clustering, sexual maturity, SES; stratified by gender ++ +
Reading (SR) (V,R); -F,-M
Free & Club PA (SR) (V) 0F,0M

Longitudinal studies include age at baseline; PA physical activity, LPA light physical activity, MPA moderate physical activity, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity; All analysis at highest multivariate level unless otherwise noted; Significance at p<0.05 unless otherwise noted; M (male) & F (female) entered separately where stratified as such; For studies with multiple groups or time specific outcomes at least half of analysis must show an association in the given direction (‘+’ or ‘-‘) with an independent variable; Adjustments listed as stated in paper; SR self report, PR parent report, Acc accelerometer, V validity reported, R reliability reported, NS potential confounders not included in final analysis as found to be non-significant, SES socioeconomic status, BMI body mass index, A bivariate analysis; B independent measures taken from map drawn by sample; C PA equipment measure also includes physical activity to media equipment ratio.

Maitland et al.

Maitland et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:99   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-99

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