|Summary of experimental studies including active video games|
|Author (Year); Country||Sample characteristics (Number; Age; Sex; Other)||Intervention description (Design; Duration; Characteristics)||Measures||Summary of key findings||Adjustments||Internal validity||External validity|
|Chin A Paw (2008); The Netherlands ||n=16; 9–12 yrs; 14% M; low fitness.||RCT (Pilot); 12 wks; Multiplayer intervention - Interactive Dance Simulation Video Game (IDSVG) for home use, 60 min weekly group class; Home intervention - IDSVG for home use only.||PA - ISDVG play (SR); Other - focus groups.||Multiplayer group averaged 901 mins ISDVG play and home group 376 mins (NS); Median play decreased from 228 mins in first 6 weeks to 0 min in second 6 weeks for home group, and increased from 475 min to 601 min in multiplayer group (NS). Significantly lower drop out in multiplayer group (15%) compared to home group (64%); Technical difficulties, need for computer and space, dull music and becoming bored were barriers.||Not noted.||+||-|
|Graves (2010); England ||n=42; 8–10 yrs; %M not reported.||RCT; 12 wks; Intervention - video games linked to jOG device that required stepping; Control - video game play as usual.||PA - Step powered video gaming, AVG play, total video gaming (SR), steps, CPM, total PA (Acc); SB - sedentary video gaming, TV, productive behaviours, leisure behaviours (SR), sedentary (Acc); Other - stature, body mass, BMI, maturity offset, subtotal body fat, trunk body fat.||Significant increase in AVG play compared to control at 6 weeks; Step powered video gaming was significantly higher at week 6 than 12 in intervention group.||Gender; baseline values of outcomes; change in maturity offset (some).||++||+|
|Maddison (2011); New Zealand ||n=322; 10–14 yrs; 73% M; overweight/ obese, video games ≥ 2 hrs per wk.||RCT; 24 wks; Intervention - AVG supplied, encouraged to do 60 mins PA per day; Control - video game play as usual.||PA - AVG play (SR), MVPA (Acc); SB - sedentary video gaming (SR); Other - weight, BMI, zBMI, total body fat, % body fat, waist circumference, energy intake from snacks, fitness.||Significant treatment effect on zBMI, BMI, % body fat, total body fat, and increase in active video game time compared to control.||Age, sex, ethnicity; baseline values of outcomes.||++||+|
|Madsen (2007); USA ||n=30A; 9–18 yrs; 40% M; obese.||Pre/post design; 6 mths; Intervention - DDR game, instructed to use 30 min x 5 days a wk, biweekly phone calls; No control group.||PA – Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) use (SR), energy expenditure (memory card); Other - BMI; Interviews.||No significant effects. 12 children used DDR at least twice a week in first 3 months, and only 2 in second 3 months. Family stressors and boredom were barriers.||Baseline zBMI.||-||-|
|Ni Mhurchu (2008); New Zealand ||n=20; 10–14 yrs; 40% M.||RCT (Pilot Study); 12 wks; Intervention - AVG supplied, instructed to substitute for regular video games; Control - video game play as usual.||PA - AVG time, total video gaming (SR), CPM (Acc), MVPA (SR); SB - inactive video gaming (SR); Other - BMI, waist circumference.||Average time in inactive video gaming was significantly lower compared to control. Objective PA (CPM) (6 wks) significantly higher and waist circumference (12 wks) significantly improved compared to control. Average total video game time was lower (54 vs 98 mins per day) compared to control (NS).||Sex; baseline values of outcomes.||+||+|
|Owens (2011); USA ||n=12 children, n=8 families; 8–13 yrs; 50% M.||Pre/post design; 3 mths; Intervention - Wii Fit, no instruction; No control group.||PA - PA (Acc), Wii Fit use (console memory); Other - height, weight, %body fat, BMI, balance, muscular fitness, aerobic fitness, flexibility.||12 min average Wii Fit use per HH per day, which decreased significantly from first to second 6 wks (21.5 to 3.9 mins per day). No significant pre-post changes in children except height and V02.||Not noted.||+||-|
M male, HH household, SB sedentary behaviours, PA physical activity, RCT randomised control trial, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity, NS non-significant; n= is number in analysis unless noted; BMI body mass index, Acc accelerometer, SR self reported, CPM counts per minute; Measures column includes outcomes and variables used in further analysis (excluding adjustment variables); Significance at p<0.05 (outcomes not reported or listed in table as non-significant if p > 0.05); Adjustments listed as stated in paper; A n =26 at 3 mths, 21 at 6 mths, 12 with DDR use diary, 7 had memory card.
Maitland et al.
Maitland et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2013 10:99 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-99