Table 1

Summary of non-face-to-face PA intervention studies targeting older adults
Print and phone interventions
Reference Study design Demographics Intervention components PA measures Results
Ball et al. [39] RCT 66 physically underactive adults (45–78 years, 73% female), Australia 12 weeks print, and print plus phone individual PA counselling; SCT, TTM; self-monitoring, goal setting, incentives, tailored feedback for print plus phone group CHAMPS: global PA scores, MET-min/wk for PA and walking measured at baseline, 12 and 16 weeks Significant increase of global PA scores from baseline to 12 weeks maintained after 16 weeks, • significant increase in MET-min/wk maintained after 16 weeks, • significant increase in MET-min/wk for walking from baseline to 12 weeks and from 12 weeks to 16 weeks in print plus phone group
Castro et al. [40] RCT 140 sedentary adults (50–65 years, 43% female, 15.6 years ±2.7 years education), USA 12 months mail only, and mail plus phone PA maintenance intervention after 12 months PA adoption intervention; SCT; motivation, self-monitoring, relapse prevention and overcoming barriers, tailored feedback Self-report exercise adherence and activity log: monthly exercise adherence based on prescribed exercise sessions recorded for 12 months During maintenance period PA levels remained over baseline, • mail only intervention with significantly higher PA maintenance
Greaney et al. [41] RCT 966 adults (≥60 years, 71.4% female, 12.9 ± 2.9 years education), USA Written material, newsletters, Expert System Assessment and coaching calls for 12 months; TTM; stage specific tailored feedback, encouragement YPAS: exercise, household and recreational PA during typical week in previous month, YPAS score (higher score: more active), measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months No significant change in YPAS scores (baseline: 46; 12 months: 46; 24 months: 47);
Hooker et al. [42] Community intervention at 13 sites (not randomized) 447 sedentary or irregular active adults (≥50 years, 78.3% female, 27.2% higher education), USA 18 phone calls in 12 months after initial face-to-face meeting where individual PA plan was developed; SCT; tailored support and feedback CHAMPS: total PA energy expenditure, total hours PA and PA frequency per week measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months Significant median increase in PA energy expenditure (baseline-6 months: 644 kcal/wk; baseline-12 months: 707 kcal/wk), • significant median increase in total PA hours (baseline-6 months: 2.75 h/wk; baseline-12 months: 3 h/wk), • significant increase in PA frequency (baseline-6 months: 3 times/wk; baseline-12 months: 4 times/wk), • no changes between 6 and 12 months
King et al. [26] RCT 189 underactive adults (≥55 years, 69.3% female, 16.2 ± 1.9 years education), USA 12 months PA phone counselling by human counsellor, or by computer controlled interactive system supplemented by info mailings and pedometer; SCT, TTM; tailoring, self-monitoring Stanford 7-Days Physical Activity Recall: energy expenditure and weekly minutes in moderate-vigorous PA; CHAMPS measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months; Accelerometer for 7 d (26% of sample) recording moderate PA Significantly greater mean energy expenditure and mean PA minutes per week in intervention groups compared to controls (6/12 months), • significantly more days of 30 minutes moderate-vigorous PA per week in intervention groups (6/12 months), • significantly more participants met WHO PA recommendation in intervention groups (6/12 months), • significantly more PA based on accelerometer counts in intervention groups
Kolt et al. [43] RCT 186 low active adults (≥65 years, 66.2% female, 44.1% higher education), New Zealand Eight PA counselling calls in 3 months; TTM; individual goal setting, providing knowledge and motivation, problem solving and relapse prevention, tailoring Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire: PA frequency per fortnight (leisure, walking, occupational, domestic) and number of minutes per time measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months Significantly more total leisure time PA in intervention group compared to controls from baseline to 3 months (48.9 min/wk, SE 21.6 min/wk), • significantly more total leisure time in intervention group from baseline to 12 months (86.6 min/wk), • significantly more participants in intervention group met PA recommendations after 12 months compared to control group
Lee et al. [44] RCT 270 inactive adults (65–74 years, 65.3% female, 32.3% higher education), Australia Interactive booklet and individual PA counselling calls for 12 weeks (five phone calls); participatory action research; tailoring, goal setting, self-monitoring, motivation IPAQ short form: frequency (days, times) and duration (minutes) of walking and PA per week measured at baseline and 12 weeks Significant differences between intervention and control group in recreational walking and PA at post intervention, • significant gain in recreational walking and PA (27 minutes/wk) in intervention group
Martinson et al. [27] RCT 1049 moderately active adults (50–70 years, 72.4% female, 66.7% higher education), USA 7 phone sessions in 6 months, followed by monthly and bimonthly calls in year one and two; control group with information material and 4 newsletters; SCT; relapse prevention, self-management (goal setting, problem solving, identification of barriers, self-monitoring, environmental cues), tailoring CHAMPS: total kcal/wk, weekly kcal spent in moderate to vigorous PA; meeting PA guidelines measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months Significantly more participants in intervention group reported more kcal/wk expended at 6 (p < 0.03) and 24 months (p < 0.01) follow-up, • intervention group continued to increase kcal/wk expenditure over 24 months, • intervention group participants reported significantly more kcal/wk expenditure in PA than controls at 6 (p < 0.03), 12 (p < 0.04) and 24 months (p < 0.01), • significantly more intervention group participants maintained PA at 6 (p < 0.001), 12 (p < 0.03), and 24 months (p < 0.001)
van Stralen et al. [36,37] RCT 1971 adults (≥50 years, 57% female, 52% middle or higher education), Holland Three computer tailored PA advice letters; or additional environmental focused information on PA opportunities in neighborhood plus access to e-buddy system for 4 months; SCT, I-Change Model, TTM, health action process approach, precaution adoption process model, self-regulation theory, self-determination theory; tailoring Dutch Short Questionnaire to assess Health enhancing PA: total weekly PA and total weekly PA minutes, compliance to PA guidelines, self-rated PA level measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up Significant increase in total PA at 3 months with further increase at 6 months in intervention groups compared to controls, • intervention groups complied with PA guidelines 1.6 times (3 months) and 2.5 times (6 months) more than controls, • insufficiently active
intervention participants more likely to have initiated
PA at 3 months than controls with further increase at 6 months, • significant increase in total days/wk of sufficient PA in intervention groups from baseline (4.2 ± 2.2) to 12 months (4.7 ± 2.0) with medium effect sizes, • only intervention with PA opportunities information significantly effective (small effect) in increasing total PA min/wk
Walker et al. [45] Randomized by site community-based controlled clinical trial 225 rural, irregular active older adults (50–69 years, 100% female, 35% higher education), USA 18 tailored PA newsletters and instructional video versus generic PA newsletters for 12 months; SCT; tailoring, motivation, overcoming barriers, goal setting Modified 7-Day Activity Recall: daily PA minutes, daily PA kcal expended, weekly time engaged in strength/flexibility training measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months Intervention and control group significantly increased on all PA measures from baseline to 6 months, • both groups significantly increased weekly stretching and strength exercise from baseline to 12 months, • only tailored group significantly increased daily moderate or higher intensity PA minutes (337.65 ± 675.4 min/wk – 509.88 ± 749.5 min/wk, p < .001)
Wilcox et al. [46] Community study of previously tested intervention (quasi experiment) 2503 underactive adults (≥50 years, 80% female, 33% higher education) recruited from different sites over four years, USA Six months phone PA counselling; SCT, tailoring, goal setting, self-monitoring, motivation CHAMPS: min/wk spent in moderate to vigorous PA, total PA, meeting PA guidelines measured at baseline and 6 months Significant PA increase and significant increase of participants meeting PA guidelines (p < .001)
Internet interventions
Hageman et al. [10] RCT 31 inactive adults (50–69 years, 100% female, 51.7% higher education), USA Three tailored versus non-tailored online newsletters in 3 months; SCT; tailored information based on baseline assessment for one group Modified 7-day Activity recall: daily energy expenditure, weekly PA minutes measured at baseline and 3 months Non-significant decrease in energy expenditure (mean decrease of calories expended daily 6.4%) and weekly PA minutes (mean decrease 6.4%) for both groups
Irvine et al. [28] RCT 405 sedentary adults (≥55 years, 69% female, 82% some college education), USA 12 weeks multiple visit stand-alone internet intervention with text and videos; Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); goal setting, tailoring Self-developed tool measuring weekly PA frequency and PA minutes applied at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks Large PA gains from baseline to 12 weeks (eta square = 0.17), • Medium to large effect sizes for cardiovascular, stretching, strengthening, balance activities and weekly PA minutes from baseline to 12 weeks maintained after 24 weeks
Ammann et al. [47] Quasi experiment 235 adults (60–89 years, 57% female, 72.3% higher education), Australia Website for individual PA advice, 1 week online; TPB, TTM; tailored feedback Active Australia Survey: PA levels (duration, frequency of walking, PA in previous week), total PA minutes, PA sessions measured at baseline, 1 week and 1 month Significant increase in total weekly PA minutes and PA sessions from baseline to 1 month (327 min ±335 min to 404 min ± 345 min; 8.3 sessions ±7.2 sessions to 10.1 session ±7.6 sessions), • non-significant increase in walking minutes, moderate and vigorous intensity PA
Other media interventions
King et al. [48] RCT 37 inactive adults (≥55 years, 43.4% female, 16.8 ± 2.2 years education), USA Educational material, and daily PA feedback delivered via PDA for 8 weeks; or written material only; SCT; tailored PA goal setting and feedback CHAMPS: minutes/wk spent in moderate to vigorous PA, total PA, meeting PA guidelines measured at baseline and 8 weeks Significantly higher 8-week moderate PA minutes in PDA group compared to controls (PDA mean = 310.6, SD 267.4 minutes; control mean = 125.5, SD 267.8 minutes; p = 0.048) and caloric expenditure in kcal/kg/wk in moderate PA (PDA mean = 19.1, SD 16.8 kcal/kg/wk; control mean = 7.8, SD 16.8 kcal/kg/wk; p = 0.05)
Reger et al. [38] 2 community longitudinal study (quasi experiment) 463 adults (50–65 years, 68% female, 24.7% higher education), USA Promoting walking in Wheeling, USA using paid media (newspaper, TV, radio) and public relations events for 8 weeks; TPB, elaboration likelihood model for advertisements Behavioral observation of walking: counting walkers at popular walking sites; self-developed PA questionnaire: weekly days of brisk walking and moderate to vigorous PA, hours and minutes devoted to activity per day measured at baseline and 8 weeks Significant (23%) increase in walking in intervention community compared to 6% decrease in comparison community (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.14-1.50), • 32.2% met walking guidelines (150 minutes/wk) in the intervention community compared to 18% in comparison community (p < 0.05, OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.41–2.24), • no significant effects in other PA

Müller and Khoo

Müller and Khoo International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014 11:35   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-35

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