Table 4

Summary of infrequently tested determinants of fruit and vegetables consumption among children and adolescents. Determinants included in less than three papers.

Determinant variable

Association/group with highest level of intake (Reference no.)

No assoc (Ref. no.)


Sociodemographic factors


Country (European)

Southern European countries: 25

Student working status

Non-working: 95

Type of dwelling

50


Personal factors


Evaluation of own diet

Pos. assoc: 79

Motivation (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, preferences)

Pos. assoc: 93

Sweetened beverage preferences

66

Bottled water preferences

66

Stages of change

Action/maintenance stage: 61

Asking/behavioural skills

41, 91

Stress

Low levels of stress: 28

Subjective health complaints

43

Depression

Low level of depression: 28

69

Outlook for the future

82

Negative self-evaluation

79

Evaluation of own health

79

Perceived healthiness

109, 113

Spirituality

Pos. assoc: 82

Exposure (former eating of fruit and vegetables)

91


Family-related factors


Number of children in the family

50

Place of residence

Living outside family: 46

Social norms (perception of others attitude on eating FV)

91

Positive relations with parents

Pos. assoc: 22, 43

Family connectedness

Pos. assoc: 85

Family cohesion

22

Family adaptation

22

Family communication

Pos. assoc: 101

Frequency of communication of dislike

22

Use of positive strategies for communication of dislike

22

Use of negative strategies for communication of dislike

Neg. assoc: 22

Number of hours spent without parents

Neg. assoc: 101

Parents present when child leaves and returns from school

98

Shared shopping

22

Children ask for healthy food to be brought from store

Pos. assoc: 22

Food asked for is bought

Neg. assoc: 22

Children preparing their own meals

Neg. assoc: 84

Food decision-making (parent/adolescent)

98

Parents prepare high/low-fat foods

66

Home high/low-fat availability

66

Mean home high/low-fat practice

66

Parental knowledge

Pos. assoc: 75

Parental self-efficacy to serve FV

Pos. assoc: 75

Parental smoking

Neg. assoc: 29

43

Parental physical activity

43

Expenditures on food

Neg. assoc: 18


Friends-related factors


Positive relations with friends

Pos. assoc: 43


School-related factors


Using the canteen

Non-canteen users: 103

Lunch source

Bringing lunch from home: 99

School food rules

24

Nutritional education

24

School size

55

Percent of Euro-American students at school

Pos. assoc: 55

Percent of students at school participating in school lunch

Pos. assoc: 55

Annual out-migration rate

55

Liking school

Pos. assoc: 35

43

Antisocial behaviour

43


Meal patterns/TV watching/eating fast food


Having regular meals

Pos. assoc: 51, 94

Skipping meals

Neg. assoc: 84

Number of snack meals

66

Snacking during school day

Neg. assoc: 35

Watching TV while eating

Neg. assoc: 83

Computer use

Pos. assoc: 97

Reading/doing homework

Pos. assoc: 97


Pos. assoc. = positive association; neg. assoc. = negative association; F = fruit; V = vegetables

Rasmussen et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006 3:22   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-22

Open Data