Table 2

Results of Generalized Equation Models (GEM) of total energy intake (kilocalories per two-hour increment) in the time 4 pm to midnight in the total sample of 2–18 year olds and by sex, ethnic groups, and age groups

Beta Coefficient

Standard Error

P-value


Total sample population


Sex (referent: male)

-36.3

2.79

<0.001


Year (in age)

7.8

0.31

<0.001


Overweight*

0.2

3.86

0.967


Obese*

3.0

5.08

0.552


Linear Time Trend

-2.5

0.78

<0.001


Males only


Year (in age)

10.7

0.49

<0.001


Overweight

-5.2

5.88

0.380


Obese

0.3

7.85

0.966


Linear Time Trend

-4.4

1.17

<0.001


Females only


Year (in age)

4.8

0.35

<0.001


Overweight

4.1

4.92

0.407


Obese

4.3

6.41

0.505


Linear Time Trend

-0.4

1.02

0.698


Non-Hispanic White


Sex

-41.2

4.08

<0.001


Year (in age)

8.4

0.45

<0.001


Overweight

0.1

5.74

0.987


Obese

5.2

8.22

0.527


Linear Time Trend

-2.7

1.11

0.016


Non-Hispanic Black


Sex

-33.4

3.56

<0.001


Year (in age)

7.4

0.39

<0.001


Overweight

-0.4

5.04

0.931


Obese

-0.8

5.14

0.869


Linear Time Trend

-4.0

1.03

<0.001


Mexican-Americans


Sex

-26.5

3.36

<0.001


Year (in age)

6.6

0.37

<0.001


Overweight

1.1

4.42

0.802


Obese

-5.2

4.71

0.268


Linear Time Trend

-0.5

1.09

0.639


Other and multicultural


Sex

-35.0

12.32

0.005


Year (in age)

6.9

1.19

<0.001


Overweight

12.3

18.62

0.507


Obese

0.7

20.28

0.973


Linear Time Trend

5.0

4.20

0.237


Other Hispanic


Sex

-15.6

11.74

0.183


Year (in age)

5.7

1.16

<0.001


Overweight

-9.0

14.15

0.524


Obese

14.1

24.27

0.561


Linear Time Trend

-4.5

3.38

0.182


2–5 year olds


Sex

-3.1

3.39

0.354


Year (in age)

7.2

1.56

<0.001


Overweight

-1.2

5.34

0.826


Obese

5.8

6.78

0.389


Linear Time Trend

1.4

0.98

0.141


6–11 Year olds


Sex

-22.2

4.47

<0.001


Year (in age)

4.9

1.33

<0.001


Overweight

16.7

6.20

0.007


Obese

10.3

7.74

0.184


Linear Time Trend

-4.6

1.23

<0.001


12–18 year olds


Sex

-66.2

5.08

<0.001


Year (in age)

7.9

1.28

<0.001


Overweight

-15.9

6.07

0.009


Obese

-5.2

8.12

0.518


Linear Time Trend

-2.9

1.40

0.039


* referent: Healthy body weight group

Eng et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009 6:27   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-27

Open Data