Table 3

Individual and combined effects of diet and/or exercise intervention on health-related quality of life scores (measured by SF-36)

Baseline

12 months

Changes


Unadjusted mean (SD)

Unadjusted mean (SD)

Unadjusted mean

Adjusted mean

p-value *

p-value


Physical functioning

< 0.001

Control

86.8 (11.7)

84.5 (15.5)

-2.3

-2.6

Ref

Diet

86.2 (11.0)

88.1 (15.9)

1.9

1.2

0.03

Exercise

87.8 (11.1)

87.6 (15.0)

-0.2

-0.1

0.17

Diet + Exercise

86.7 (12.1)

92.4 (11.3)

5.7

5.5

< 0.001 b


Role-physical

< 0.001

Control

81.6 (30.1)

78.7 (32.0)

-2.9

-3.7

Ref

Diet

83.5 (26.8)

82.8 (30.4)

-0.7

-0.3

0.36

Exercise

82.8 (29.3)

78.7 (32.7)

-4.1

-4.1

0.93

Diet + Exercise

83.5 (25.9)

92.5 (18.9)

9.0

9.6

< 0.001 b


Bodily pain

0.12

Control

75.8 (17.2)

72.6 (18.2)

-3.2

-4.6

Ref

Diet

76.9 (15.1)

76.8 (21.2)

-0.1

-1.1

0.15

Exercise

77.8 (16.5)

74.5 (20.7)

-3.3

-3.8

0.74

Diet + Exercise

78.8 (16.8)

79.1 (17.5)

0.3

0.4

0.04


General health

0.57

Control

57.1 (8.0)

56.4 (7.1)

-0.7

-0.5

Ref

Diet

55.9 (7.7)

56.9 (7.3)

1.0

0.5

0.24

Exercise

56.9 (6.7)

56.4 (7.3)

-0.5

-0.5

0.97

Diet + Exercise

57.6 (6.4)

56.9 (7.3)

-0.7

-0.3

0.81


Vitality

< 0.001

Control

57.4 (16.0)

59.2 (17.9)

1.8

0.4

Ref

Diet

56.6 (17.7)

65.7 (17.2)

9.1

7.2

< 0.001

Exercise

60.3 (16.3)

62.9 (17.6)

2.6

2.8

0.25

Diet + Exercise

58.7 (18.6)

70.2 (17.2)

11.5

11.2

< 0.001 a


Social functioning

0.43

Control

87.8 (18.0)

86.9 (17.5)

-0.9

-2.5

Ref

Diet

88.1 (17.1)

87.2 (18.6)

-0.9

-3.1

0.83

Exercise

91.4 (13.1)

88.5 (18.9)

-2.9

-4.0

0.58

Diet + Exercise

90.8 (13.4)

91.6 (17.0)

0.8

-0.2

0.37


Role-emotional

0.09

Control

84.1 (26.9)

83.3 (31.8)

-0.8

-3.3

Ref

Diet

82.2 (28.5)

85.6 (27.4)

3.4

-0.8

0.51

Exercise

87.5 (25.5)

81.4 (32.5)

-6.1

-6.2

0.45

Diet + Exercise

88.6 (20.1)

90.3 (22.8)

1.7

2.5

0.13


Mental health

0.06

Control

77.1 (13.5)

77.3 (14.5)

0.2

-0.8

Ref

Diet

76.8 (13.1)

80.2 (13.0)

3.4

2.2

0.05

Exercise

81.1 (10.0)

81.2 (11.7)

0.1

0.9

0.29

Diet + Exercise

79.1 (12.3)

82.3 (12.6)

3.2

3.1

0.01


Adjusted mean change indicates adjustment for the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and covariates

*p-value comparing 12-month changes in HRQOL vs. control adjusting for the baseline scores and covariates (Physical functioning: baseline BMI, medication use, Role-physical: age, baseline BMI, Bodily pain: medication use, Vitality: age, medication use, Social functioning: employment status, Role-emotional: medication use, Mental health: medication use)

p-value for group effects on 12-month changes in HRQOL adjusting for baseline scores and covariates (Physical functioning: baseline BMI, medication use, Role-physical: age, baseline BMI, Bodily pain: medication use, Vitality: age, medication use, Social functioning: employment status, Role-emotional: medication use, Mental health: medication use)

ap-value< 0.05 vs. diet group, bp-value< 0.01 vs. diet group

Imayama et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:118   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-118

Open Data