Table 4

Individual and combined effects of diet and/or exercise intervention on psychosocial factors (depression and anxiety measured by BSI-18, perceived stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, social support measured by MOS Social Support Survey)

Baseline

12 months

Changes


Unadjusted mean (SD)

Unadjusted mean (SD)

Unadjusted mean

Adjusted mean

p-value *

p-value


Depression

0.12

Control

48.0 (9.0)

48.4 (9.6)

0.4

0.7

Ref

Diet

49.4 (9.8)

47.8 (8.7)

-1.6

-0.5

0.31

Exercise

48.3 (9.4)

48.1 (9.8)

-0.2

0.2

0.68

Diet + Exercise

48.3 (8.7)

46.2 (8.2)

-2.1

-1.7

0.03


Anxiety

0.41

Control

45.3 (7.0)

45.3 (8.7)

0.0

0.6

Ref

Diet

44.9 (6.8)

43.8 (7.3)

-1.1

-0.6

0.17

Exercise

43.5 (6.1)

43.0 (6.9)

-0.5

-0.7

0.14

Diet + Exercise

44.2 (6.8)

43.5 (6.4)

-0.7

-0.6

0.15


Perceived stress

0.04

Control

3.71 (2.64)

3.89 (2.75)

0.18

0.32

Ref

Diet

3.47 (2.66)

3.51 (2.65)

0.04

0.08

0.44

Exercise

3.43 (2.75)

3.35 (2.84)

-0.08

-0.06

0.23

Diet + Exercise

3.04 (2.35)

2.66 (2.27)

-0.38

-0.55

0.006


Social support

0.11

Control

81.0 (20.1)

78.5 (20.8)

-2.5

-2.8

Ref

Diet

80.0 (19.3)

79.4 (20.5)

-0.6

-1.1

0.38

Exercise

81.4 (15.9)

78.6 (20.8)

-2.8

-2.9

0.97

Diet + Exercise

81.7 (19.4)

82.9 (18.6)

1.2

1.0

0.05


Adjusted means are changes in psychological factors adjusted for baseline scores and covariates (e.g., age, baseline BMI, marital status, anxiolytics and antidepressants use)

*p-value comparing 12-month changes in psychosocial factors vs. control adjusting for the baseline scores and covariates (Depression: medication use, Anxiety: medication use, Stress: age, Social support: marital status)

p-value for group effects on 12-month changes in psychosocial factors adjusting for baseline scores and covariates (Depression: medication use, Anxiety: medication use, Stress: age, Social support: marital status)

Imayama et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:118   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-118

Open Data