Table 7

Logistic regression analysis of socio-demographic factors associated with skipping breakfast among Pakistani primary school children (n = 1860)

Skipping breakfast (n = 141)


Characteristics

Crude OR (95% CI)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)a


Gender

Boys

Ref.

Ref.

Girls

1.64 (1.16-2.33)

1.50 (1.04-2.16)*

Area and socioeconomic status (SES)

Urban, high SES

5.96 (3.24-10.94)

2.34 (0.86-6.36)

Urban, middle SES

2.06 (1.05-4.06)*

1.02 (0.37-2.79)

Urban, low SES

2.74 (1.43-5.27)

1.68 (0.70-4.01)

Rural, low/disadvantaged SES

Ref.

Ref.

Neighborhood income

Low

Ref.

Ref.

Middle

2.68 (1.65-4.35)

1.64 (0.88-3.05)

High

4.54 (2.65-7.78)

1.94 (0.93-4.07)

Parental education

Illiterate

Ref.

Ref.

High school

1.44 (0.73-2.86)

0.95 (0.43-2.13)

College

3.07 (1.65-5.72)

1.33 (0.56-3.15)

Higher education

3.18 (1.70-5.96)

1.27 (0.52-3.08)

Number of siblings

No

1.60 (0.37-6.98)

0.85 (1.89-3.85)

1-3

2.06 (1.42-3.01)

1.33 (0.87-2.03)

> 3

Ref.

Ref.


P < 0.001, P < 0.01, *P < 0.05

aThe model is controlled for age

Mushtaq et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:130   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-130

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