Table 3

Weighted BMI Parameter Estimates (t ratios in parentheses)

Males

Females


Independent Variables

OLS Model

Instrumental Variables Model

Reduced Form Modela

OLS Model

Instrumental Variables Model

Reduced Form Modela


Intercept

30.23 (54.86)**

33.22 (16.84)**

38.30 (21.38)**

29.98 (46.18)**

30.00 (11.74)**

35.40 (18.02)**


Primary Eating Timea

-.03 (-2.10)**

-0.74 (-2.42)**

-.03 (-2.30)**

-0.66 (-2.46)**


Secondary Eating Timea

-.02 (-3.56)**

-0.96 (-3.06)**

-.03 (-4.40)**

-0.37 (-2.28)*


Secondary Drinking Timea

.01 (2.49)**

2.14 (1.87)*

.01 (2.32)**

0.36 (1.81)*


Food Preparation Timea

-.05 (-3.07)**

0.04 (.35)

-.03 (-2.57)**

-0.17 (-2.75)**


Physically Active Timea

-.01 (-2.11)**

0.02 (.58)

-.02 (-3.88)**

0.37 (.49)


Sleep Timea

-.02 (-4.36)**

-0.14 (-2.48)**

-.00 (0.40)

-0.04 (-.47)


Television/Video Timea

.01 (3.50)**

0.18 (4.23)**

.03 (5.30)**

0.19 (2.05)**


Age

.01 (1.57)

0.00 (.10)

.09 (5.39)**

.03 (5.10)**

0.05 (2.80)**

.07 (4.36)**


Black

.18 (.92)

-1.56 (-2.38)**

.01 (.06)

2.42 (12.17)**

1.24 (3.45)*

2.35 (11.57)**


Hispanic

.09 (.51)

0.37 (1.80)*

-.18 (-.94)

.76 (3.65)**

1.52 (5.77)**

.76 (3.52)**


Other

-1.04 (-3.80)**

-0.67 (-2.19)**

-.72 (-2.57)**

-.64 (-2.30)**

0.69 (1.84)*

-.51 (-1.77)*


Married/Cohabitating

.69 (4.87)**

1.14 (4.54)**

.22 (1.18)

-.45 (-3.10)**

0.27 (1.04)

-.74 (-4.57)**


Education

-.17 (-6.89)**

0.18 (2.06)**

-.06 (-1.21)

-.34 (-12.22)**

-0.09 (-1.18)

-.23 (-4.54)**


Employed

.47 (2.72)**

1.25 (4.72)**

.44 (2.62)**

.23 (1.52)

0.35 (.64)

.16 (1.07)


Poor Health

2.21 (12.73)**

1.39 (4.83)**

2.27 (13.10)**

3.04 (16.03)**

2.31 (8.60)**

3.15 (16.61)**


Occupation with METs > 3.3

-.54 (-3.08)**

-0.43 (-.69)

-.75 (-4.88)**

---

---

---


Number of Kids < Age 6

-.07 (-.72)

0.25 (1.92)*

-.24 (-2.24)**

-.04 (-.36)

0.34 (1.87)*

-.08 (-.70)


Number of Kids Age 6-17

.04 (.69)

0.04 (.53)

.07 (1.10)

.00 (.05)

0.15 (1.00)

.02 (.33)


Weekend

.06 (.52)

-.04 (-.27)


Primary Meal Preparer

-.07 (-.46)

-.71 (-3.73)**


Primary Grocery Shopper

.19 (1.35)

.22 (.94)


Summer

.24 (1.82)*

.10 (.69)


ATUS07

.05 (.45)

-.00 (-.00)


Grocery Price Index

-.03 (-4.69)**

-.03 (-4.50)**


Hourly Opportunity Cost of Time

-.06 (-2.89)**

-.07 (-2.75)**


Ln(Non-Wage Income)

-1.34 (-4.68)**

-.55 (-1.75)**


Adjusted R2

.05

.05

.05

.11

.11

.11


F-Statistic

23.47**

21.92**

22.19**

67.53**

65.34**

62.22**


*p < .10, **p < .05

a Time use is measured in 10 minute increments.

Zick et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:84   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-84

Open Data