Table 2

Summary of characteristics of included studies

n analyzed

First Author

Year

Country

Grade

Age Range

Mean age

Total

Boys

Girls

Units of sedentary behaviour

Exposure

Outcome


RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

Epstein LH [265]

1995

US

8-12

10.1

61

hour

week

TV

BC

Epstein LH [50]

2008

US

4-7

6

70

37

33

hour

day

TV

BC

Goldfield GS [264]

2006

Canada

8-12

10.4

30

13

17

min

day

TV

BC

Gortmaker SL [57]

1995

US

11.7

1295

668

627

hour

day

TV

BC

Hughes AR [262]

1991

Scotland

5-11

8.8

134

59

74

hour

day

SB

BC

Robinson TN [58]

1999

US

192

hour

week

TV, GAMES

BC

Robinson TN [221]

2003

US

8-10

9.5

61

0

61

hour

week

TV

BC, SE

Shelton D [263]

2007

Australia

3-10

7.5

43

20

23

hour

day

TV

BC

INTERVENTION STUDIES

Epstein LH [56]

2000

US

8-12

10.5

76

24

52

hour

month

SB, ST

BC, FIT

Epstein LH [59]

2004

US

8-12

9.8

60

23

39

times

week

TV

BC

Epstein LH [60]

2005

US

8-16

58

28

30

hour

day

SB, TV

BC

Gentile DA [61]

2009

US

9.6

1323

685

674

hour

day

ST

BC

Goldfield GS [52]

2007

Canada

8-12

10.4

30

13

17

hour

day

SB

BC, SE

Harrison M [62]

2003

Ireland

10.2

312

177

135

min

day

TV, ST

BC

Ochoa MC [53]

2007

Spain

6-18

11.6

370

196

174

hour

week

TV

BC

Salmon J [51]

2008

Australia

1011

10.8

311

152

159

hour

day

TV

BC

Simon C [54]

2002

France

11.7

954

468

486

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC, SE

Tanasescu M [55]

2000

Puerto Rico

7-10

9.2

53

22

31

hour

day

TV

BC

LONGITUDINAL STUDIES

hour

Aires L [83]

2010

Portugal

11-19

345

147

198

hour

day

SCREEN

BC, FIT

Berkey CS [76]

2003

US

10-15

11887

5120

6767

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Bhargava A [77]

2008

US

7635

min

day

TV

BC

Blair NJ [68]

2007

England

5.5

591

287

304

hour

day

SB, TV

BC

Borradaile KE [86]

2008

US

11.2

1092

501

591

hour

week

TV

BC

Burke V [71]

2006

Australia

7.6/10.8

1569

630

648

hour

week

SCREEN

BC

Chen JL [78]

2007

Chinese

7-8

7.52

307

147

160

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Danner FW [66]

2008

US

7334

3674

3660

hour

day

TV

BC

Dasgupta K [215]

2006

Canada

12.7/15.1/17.0

662

319

343

hour

week

SB, TV

MS

Day RS [85]

2009

US

8-14

556

277

279

min

day

TV

BC

Dietz WH [181]

1985

US

12-17

2153

hour

day

TV

BC

Elgar FJ [79]

2005

Wales

11.7

654

293

361

hour

week

TV

BC

Elgar FJ [79]

2005

Wales

15.3

392

181

211

hour

week

TV

BC

Ennemoser M [237]

2007

German

6-8

332

min

day

TV

SE, AA

Fulton JE [84]

2009

US

10-18

472

245

227

min

day

TV

BC

Gable S [70]

2007

US

8000

hour

day

TV

BC

Hancox RJ [88]

2004

New Zealand

5-15

1013

hour

day

TV

BC, MS

Hancox RJ [72]

2006

New Zealand

5-15

603

372

339

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Henderson VR [67]

2007

US

11-19

2379

0

2379

hour

day

TV, SCREEN

BC

Hesketh K [80]

1997

Australia

5-10

7.6

1278

630

648

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Hesketh K [80]

1997

Australia

8-13

10.7

1278

630

648

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Hesketh K [64]

2009

Australia

5-10

7.7

1943

972

971

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Hesketh K [64]

2009

Australia

8-13

1569

816

753

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Jackson LA [223]

2009

US

12

500

235

265

hour

day

COMP, SCREEP

SE

Jago R [82]

2005

US

5-6

6.5

138

65

73

min

hr

SB, TV

BC

Janz KF [73]

2005

US

5.6/8.6

378

176

202

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Johnson JG [41]

2007

US

hour

day

TV

AA

Kaur H [75]

2003

US

12-17

2223

1149

1074

hour

day

TV

BC

Lajunen HR [128]

2007

Finland

15-19

5184

hour

SB

BC

Lonner W [238]

1985

US

9-19

14.2

367

hour

day

TV

AA

Maffeis C [89]

1998

Italy

8.7

298

148

150

min

day

SCREEN

BC

Mistry K [229]

2007

US

hour

day

TV

PRO

Mitchell JA [49]

2009

UK

11-12

11.8

5434

2590

2844

hour

day

SB

BC, FIT

Must A [87]

2007

US

10-17

156

0

156

hour

day

SB, SCREEN

BC

O'Brien M [69]

2007

US

2-12

653

hour

week

TV

BC

Parsons TJ [74]

2005

England/Scotland/Wales

11/16

17733

hour

day

TV

BC

Purslow LR [63]

2008

England

8-9

345

176

169

min

day

SB

BC

Timperio A [65]

2008

Australia

10-12

344

152

192

times

week

SB, SCREEN

BC

Treuth MS [29]

2007

US

11.9

984

0

984

min

day

SB

BC

Treuth MS [27]

2009

US

13.9

984

0

984

min

day

SB

BC

Wosje,K.S [205]

2009

US

6.75-7.25

214

hour

day

SCREEN

FIT

CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES

Al SH [192]

2009

International

12-18

17715

8503

9212

hour

day

TV

BC

Albarwani S [207]

2009

Oman

15-16

529

245

284

hour

week

TV, COMP

FIT

Alves JG [191]

2009

Brazil

7-10

733

407

326

hour

day

TV

BC

Aman J [218]

2009

Sweden

11-18

14.5

2093

1016

991

hour

week

TV, COMP

MS

Andersen LF [155]

2005

Norway

8-14

1432

702

730

hour

day

TV

BC

Andersen RE [142]

1998

US

8-16

4063

1985

2071

hour

day

TV

BC

Anderson SE [103]

2008

US

4-12

8

2964

1509

1455

hour

day

TV

BC

Armstrong CA [213]

1998

US

9.28

588

304

284

hour

day

TV

FIT

Asante PA [183]

2009

US

3-13

8.5

324

182

142

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Aucote HM [163]

2009

Australia

5-6

11.09

393

198

195

hour

week

TV, GAMES

BC

Barlow SE [151]

2007

US

6-17

12.1

52845

hour

day

TV

BC

Basaldua N [109]

2008

Mexico

6-12

8.9

551

278

273

hour

day

TV

BC

Bellisle F [123]

2007

France

9-11

1000

500

500

hour

day

TV

BC

Berkey CS [90]

2000

US

Sep-14

10769

4620

6149

hour

day

TV

BC

Beyerlein A [105]

2008

Germany

4.5-7.3

4967

2585

2382

hour

day

TV

BC

Boone JE [164]

2007

US

15.9

9155

4879

4276

hour

week

SCREEN

BC

Boone-Heinonen J [104]

2008

US

11-21

9251

hour

SB

BC

Boutelle KN [130]

2007

US

16-18

1726

890

836

hour

day

TV

BC

Brodersen NH [235]

2005

England

11.8

4320

2578

1742

hour

week

SB

SE, PRO

Bukara-Radujkovic G [96]

2009

Bosnia

11-12

11.5

1204

578

626

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Butte NF [119]

2007

US

6-17

10.8

897

441

456

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Caldas S [245]

1999

US

4-19

34542

hour

day

TV

AA

Carvalhal MM [131]

2007

Portugal

10-11

3365

1755

1610

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Chaput J [154]

2006

Canada

5-10

6.6

422

211

211

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Chen MY [78]

2007

Taiwan

13-18

15.03

660

351

309

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC, SE, PRO

Chowhan J [232]

2007

Canada

12-15

2666

hour

day

TV

PRO

Christoforidis A [95]

2009

Greece

4-18

11.41

1549

735

814

hour

day

SCREEN

BC, FIT

Collins AE [149]

2008

Indonesia

12-15

1758

815

916

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Colwell J [200]

2003

Japan

12-13

305

159

146

hour

day

SCREEN

BC, PRO

Cooper H [247]

1999

US

7-11

424

225

199

hour

day

TV

AA

Crespo CJ [177]

2001

US

8-16

4069

1994

2075

hour

day

TV

BC

Da CR [157]

2003

Brazil

7-10

446

107

107

hour

day

TV

BC

Dasgupta K [215]

2007

Canada

13-17

1267

hour

week

SCREEN

MS

Delva J [125]

2007

US

11265

5274

5991

hour

week

TV

BC

Dietz WH [181]

1985

US

12-17

6671

hour

day

TV

AA

Dietz WH [181]

1985

US

6-11

6965

hour

day

TV

BC, AA

Dollman J [211]

2006

Australia

6

10-11

843

439

404

min

Day

TV

FIT

Dumais SA [255]

2009

US

10-12

15850

hour

TV

AA

Dominick JR [225]

1984

US

10, 11

14-18

250

110

140

hour

Day

TV, GAME

SE, PRO

Eisenmann JC [175]

2002

US

14-18

15143

hour

day

TV

BC

Eisenmann JC [113]

2008

US'

16.2

12464

6080

6384

hour

day

TV

BC

Ekelund U [134]

2006

Europe

9-16

1921

911

1010

hour

day

TV

BC, MS

Fetler M [249]

1984

US

6

10603

hour

day

SCREEN

AA

Forshee RA [201]

2004

US

12-16

14

2216

1075

1141

hour

day

TV

BC

Forshee RA [188]

2009

US

5-18

1459

734

725

hour

week

SCREEN

BC

Gaddy GD [257]

1986

US

5074

hour

day

TV

AA

Giammattei J [140]

2003

US

11-14

12.6

385

186

199

hour

day

TV

BC

Gibson S [156]

2004

England

7-18

1294

655

639

min

day

TV

BC

Gomez LF [150]

2007

Colombia

5-12

11137

5539

5598

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Gordon-Larsen P [176]

2002

US

11-19

15.9

12759

6290

6496

hour

week

TV, GAMES

BC

Gortmaker SL [143]

1996

US

10-15

11.5

746

388

358

hour

day

TV

BC

Gortmaker SL [57]

1999

US

6-11

1745

min

week

TV

SE, AA

Gortmaker SL [57]

1999

US

12-17

1745

min

week

TV

SE, AA

Graf C [167]

2004

Germany

6.8

344

177

167

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Grusser SM [40]

2005

Germany

6

11.83

323

175

148

hour

day

TV

AA

Hardy LL [133]

2006

Australia

11-15

2750

1446

1304

hour

day

SCREEN

FIT

Hernandez B [178]

1999

Mexico

9-16

461

244

217

hour

day

TV

BC

Hirschler V [144]

2009

Argentina

7-11

8.9

330

168

162

hour

day

TV

BC

Holder MD [222]

2009

Canada

8-12

375

252

262

hour

day

SCREEN

SE

Hume C [190]

2009

Netherlands

13

580

277

303

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Islam-Zwart K [195]

2008

US

480

198

282

hour

day

TV

BC

Jackson LA [223]

2009

US

12.18

515

259

256

hour

day

GAMES, COMP

AA

Janssen I [166]

2004

Canada

11-16

5890

2812

3078

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Janz K [174]

2002

US

4-6

5.3

462

216

246

hour

day

TV

BC

Jaruratanasirikul S [241]

2009

Thailand

7-12

15.9

1492

562

929

hour

GAMES

AA

Johnson CC [41]

2007

US

12

1397

0

1397

hour

day

SB

SE

Katzmarzyk PT [197]

1998

Canada

9-18

784

423

361

min

day

TV

BC, FIT

Katzmarzyk PT [184]

1998

Canada

640

356

284

hour

day

TV

BC, FIT

Kautiainen S [135]

2005

Finland

14-18

6515

2916

3599

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Keith TZ [256]

1986

US

high school seniors

28051

hour

day

TV

AA

Klein-Platat C [165]

2005

France

12

2714

1357

1357

hour

week

SB

BC

Kosti RI [196]

2007

Greece

12-17

2008

1021

987

hour

day

TV

BC

Kristjansson AL [243]

2009

Iceland

14-15

5810

2807

3004

hour

day

TV

AA

Kuntsche E [230]

2006

International

11-15

31177

hour

day

TV

PRO

Kuriyan R [117]

2007

India

6-16

598

324

274

hour

day

TV

BC

Lagiou A [160]

2008

Greece

10-12

633

316

317

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Lajous M [92]

2009

Mexico

11-18

13.9

9132

3519

5613

hour

day

TV

BC

Lajunen HR [128]

2007

Finland

17.6

4098

1981

2117

hour

week

COMP

BC

Lasserre AM [116]

2007

Switzerland

10.1-14.9

12.3

5207

2621

2586

hour

day

TV

BC

Laurson KR [107]

2008

US

7-12

709

318

391

hour

week

SCREEN

BC

Lazarou C [217]

2009

Cyprus

11.7

622

306

316

hour

day

TV

MS

Leatherdale ST [11]

2008

Canada

14-19

25416

12806

12610

hour

day

TV

BC, PRO

Lioret S [127]

2007

France

3-14

1016

528

488

hour

day

SB, TV, COMP

BC

Lobelo F [208]

2009

US

14-18

5210

0

5210

hour

day

SCREEN

FIT

Lowry R [173]

2002

US

15349

7445

7828

hour

day

TV

BC

Lutfiyya MN [118]

2007

US

5-17

7972

hour

day

TV

BC

Maffeis C [114]

2008

Italy

8-10

9.3

1837

924

913

hour

day

TV

BC

Mark AE [220]

2008

US

12-19

15.9

1803

1005

798

hour

day

TV

BC, MS

McMurray RG [187]

2000

US

10-16

12.7

2389

1149

1240

hour

day

TV

BC

Mihas C [193]

2009

Greece

12-17

14.4

2008

1021

987

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Mikolajczyk RT [194]

2008

Germany

11-17

13.5

4878

2433

2445

hour

low/high

SB

BC

Moraes SA [135]

2006

Mexico

6-14

8.0/11.3

662

343

339

hour

week

Morgenstern M [94]

2009

Germany/US

10-17

12.8

4810

2294

2516

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Morgenstern M [94]

2009

Germany/US

12-16

14

4473

2239

2234

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Mota J [199]

2006

Portugal

14.6

450

220

230

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Muller MJ [179]

1999

Germany

5-7

1468

739

729

hour

day

TV

BC

Nagel G [193]

2009

Germany

6-9

7.57

1079

498

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

nastassea-Vlachou K [240]

1996

Greece

6-13

4690

2279

2411

hour

day

TV

AA

Nawal LM [148]

1998

US

5-18

62976

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Nelson MC [233]

2006

US

7-12

11957

5979

5978

hour

day

SCREEN

PRO

Neumark-Sztainer D [224]

2004

US

11-18

14.9

4746

2382

2364

hour

week

TV

SE, PRO

Nogueira JA [45]

2009

Brazil

8.3-16.8

13

326

204

122

hour

day

SB

BC

Obarzanek E [180]

1994

US

9-10

10.1

2379

0

2379

hour

week

TV

BC

Ohannessian CM [226]

2009

US

14-16

14.99

328

138

190

hour

day

SCREEN

SE, PRO, AA

Ortega FB [122]

2007

Spain

13-18.5

15.4

2859

1357

1502

hour

day

SB

BC

Overby NC [219]

2009

Norway

6-19

723

375

348

min

day

TV

Ozmert E [42]

2002

Turkey

689

343

346

hour

day

TV

PRO, AA

Padez C [99]

2009

Portugal

7-9

3390

1696

1694

hour

day

TV

BC

Page RM [234]

2001

Philippine

15.1

3307

1267

1819

hour

week

TV

PRO

Pate RR [210]

2006

US

12-19

15.4

3287

1686

1601

hour

day

TV

FIT

Patrick K [169]

2004

US

11-15

12.7

878

407

471

min

day

TV

BC

Pratt C [101]

2008

US

12

1458

223

1235

hour

day

SB

BC

Purath J [185]

1995

US

3-5

365

189

176

hour

day

TV

BC, MS

Ramos E [126]

2007

Portugal

13

2161

1045

1116

min

week

SB, TV, COMP

BC

Rapp K [138]

2005

Germany

6.2

2140

1015

1125

hour

day

TV

BC

Ridley-Johnson R [252]

1983

US

5-8

290

hour

day

TV

AA

Roberts DF [250]

1984

US

539

hour

week

TV

AA

Robinson TN [58]

1999

US

12.4

971

0

971

hour

day

TV

BC

Ruangdaraganon N [141]

2002

Thailand

6-12

9.4

4197

2126

2035

hour

day

TV

BC

Russ SA [147]

2009

US

6-17

54863

28153

26710

hour

day

SCREEN

BC, SE

Sakamoto A [236]

1994

Japan

4-6

307

165

142

times

week

GAMES

PRO

Sakamoto A [236]

1994

Japan

4-6

537

287

250

hour

week

COMP, GAMES

PRO

Sakamoto A [236]

1994

Japan

4-5

118

118

0

hour

week

COMP, GAMES

PRO

Salmon J [136]

2006

Australia

5-12

1560

743

817

hour

day

TV

BC

Sardinha LB [48]

2008

Portugal

9-10

9.8

308

161

147

hour

day

SB

MS

Scott LF [254]

1958

US

6-7

407

hour

TV

AA

Sharif I [244]

2006

US

10-14

6522

3169

3353

hour

day

TV, GAMES

PRO, AA

Sharif I [260]

2010

US

9-15

12

4508

2209

2299

hour

day

TV, GAMES

AA

Shejwal B [246]

2006

India

16.05

654

368

286

hour

day

TV

AA

Shields M [162]

2006

US/Can

2-17

8661

hour

day

SB, TV

BC

Shin N [239]

2004

US

6-13

9

1203

605

598

min

day

TV

AA

Singh GK [106]

2003

US

10-17

46707

24072

22635

hour

day

TV

BC

Singh GK [106]

2003

US

10-17

46707

24072

22635

hour

day

TV

BC

Skoric MM [258]

2009

Singapore

8-12

10

333

180

153

hour

TV, GAMES

AA

Smith BJ [161]

2007

Fiji

11-16

443

200

245

hour

day

TV

BC

Spinks AB [124]

2007

Australia

5-12

518

282

236

min

week

SB, SCREEN

BC

Steffen LM [98]

2009

US

8-11

526

256

270

hour

day

TV

BC

Stettler N [168]

2004

Switzerland

8

872

410

462

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Sugiyama T [47]

2007

US

12-19

15.9

4508

2295

2213

hour

day

SB

MS

Sun Y [91]

2009

Japan

12-13

.

5753

2842

2911

hour

day

TV

BC

Taylor WC [158]

2002

US

6-15

11.1

509

231

278

kcal

day

SB

BC

te Velde SJ [129]

2007

International

9-14

11.4

12538

6256

6282

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Thompson AM [189]

2009

Canada

3, 7, 11

1777

795

982

min

day

TV

BC

Toschke AM [112]

2008

Germany

5-6

4884

hour

day

TV

BC

Toschke AM [121]

2007

Germany

5-6

5472

hour

day

TV

BC

Trang NHHD [146]

2009

Australia

11-16

2660

1332

1328

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Tremblay MS [172]

2003

Canada

7-11

7261

hour

day

TV

BC

Treuth MS [27]

2009

US

11-12

11.9

1579

0

1579

hour

day

SB

BC

Tsai H [153]

2007

Taiwan

11-12

2218

1146

1072

hour

day

TV

BC

Tsai H [145]

2009

Taiwan

11-12

1329

615

672

hour

day

SB, TV

BC

Tucker LA [212]

1987

US

15.7

406

406

0

hour

day

TV

FIT, SE, PRO

Tucker LA [206]

1986

US

15.7

379

379

0

hour

day

TV

FIT

Tucker LA [214]

1996

US

9-10

9.8

262

162

100

hour

day

TV

FIT

Ussher MH [231]

1007

England

13-16

2623

hour

day

TV

PRO, AA

Utter J [171]

2003

US

14.9

4480

2240

2240

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Utter J [152]

2007

New Zealand

5-14

1743

959

784

hour

day

TV, COMP

BC

Vader AM [97]

2009

US

11, 7

11594

6162

5432

hour

day

TV

BC

van Schie EG [261]

1997

Netherlands

10-14

11.5

346

171

175

hour

day

SCREEN

PRO, AA

van Zutphen M [159]

2007

Australia

4-12

8

1926

939

987

min

day

TV

BC

Vandewater EA [170]

2004

US

1-12

6

2831

1444

1387

hour

day

SB, SCREEN

BC

Vaughan C [198]

2007

Australia

11-18

14

443

189

254

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Vicente-Rodriguez G [110]

2008

Spain

13-18.5

1960

1012

948

hour

day

TV, GAMES

BC

Violante R [137]

2005

Mexico

6-14

8624

258

4366

hour

day

TV

BC

Wake M [186]

2003

Australia

5-13

9.1

2862

1445

1417

hour

week

SCREEN

BC

Walberg HJ [251]

1984

US

2-6

13

2890

1445

1445

hour

day

TV

AA

Walberg HJ [253]

1982

US

17

2001

1031

970

hour

day

TV

AA

Waller CE [202]

2003

China

6-11

9

880

hour

week

TV

BC

Wang Y [120]

2007

US

11.9

498

218

280

hour

day

SCREEN

BC

Welch WW [248]

1986

Australia

3-4

9

9

1960

TV

AA

Wells JC [108]

2008

Brazil

10-12

4452

2193

2258

hour

day

TV

BC, MS

Whitt-Glover MC [24]

2009

US

6-19

749

351

398

min

day

SB

BC

Wiggins J [227]

1987

US

4-12

483

252

231

min

day

TV

SE, AA

Wolf AM [203]

1998

US

11-14

552

0

552

hour

day

TV

BC

Wong SL [100]

2009

Canada

15.5

25060

12806

12254

hour

day

SB, SCREEN

BC

Zabinski MF [132]

2007

US

11-15

878

425

453

hour

day

SB

BC


SB, sedentary behaviour; TV, television viewing; COMP, computer time; GAME, video game playing; SCREEN, composite measure of 2 or more screen activities (i.e. television viewing, computer time, or video game playing); BC, body composition; MS, measures of metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease (e.g. insulin resistance, blood pressure); SE, self-esteem; PRO, pro-social behaviour; AA, academic achievement.

Tremblay et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011 8:98   doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-98

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